The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of apomorphine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hematologic and Lymphatic Systems: Hemolytic anemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
Based on reports of profound hypotension and loss of consciousness when subcutaneous apomorphine was administered with ondansetron, the concomitant use of KYNMOBI with 5HT3 antagonists, including antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron, granisetron, palonosetron) and alosetron, is contraindicated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
In a study of healthy subjects, concomitant administration of 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin with subcutaneous apomorphine caused greater decreases in blood pressure than with subcutaneous apomorphine alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients taking KYNMOBI should lie down before and after taking sublingual nitroglycerin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
In a study of healthy subjects, concomitant administration of high-dose (0.6 g/kg) or low-dose (0.3 g/kg) ethanol with subcutaneous apomorphine caused greater decreases in blood pressure than with subcutaneous apomorphine alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients should avoid drinking alcohol after using KYNMOBI [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Since KYNMOBI is a dopamine agonist, it is possible that concomitant use of dopamine antagonists, such as the neuroleptics (e.g., phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes) or metoclopramide, may diminish the effectiveness of KYNMOBI. Antiemetics with anti-dopaminergic actions should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Patients with major psychotic disorders receiving neuroleptics should be treated with dopamine agonists only if the potential benefits outweigh the risks [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with use of KYNMOBI in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, apomorphine had adverse developmental effects in rats (increased neonatal deaths) and rabbits (increased incidence of malformation) when administered during pregnancy at clinically relevant doses. These doses were also associated with maternal toxicity [see Data]. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
No adverse developmental effects were observed when apomorphine (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg/day) was administered by subcutaneous injection to pregnant rats throughout organogenesis. Administration of apomorphine (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection to pregnant rabbits throughout organogenesis resulted in an increased incidence of malformations of the heart and/or great vessels at the mid and high doses; maternal toxicity was observed at the highest dose tested.
Apomorphine (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg/day), administered by subcutaneous injection to females throughout gestation and lactation, resulted in increased offspring mortality at the highest dose tested, which was associated with maternal toxicity. There were no effects on developmental parameters or reproductive performance in surviving offspring.
There are no data on the presence of apomorphine in human milk, the effects of apomorphine on the breastfed infant, or the effects of apomorphine on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for KYNMOBI and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from KYNMOBI or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of KYNMOBI did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In Study 1, 78 patients below 65 years of age and 63 patients 65 years of age or older received at least one dose of KYNMOBI. Clinical experience with subcutaneous use of apomorphine has shown that the following adverse reactions were reported more frequently in patients 65 years of age or older compared to patients less than 65 years of age: confusion; hallucinations; serious adverse reactions (life-threatening events or events resulting in hospitalization and/or increased disability); falls (experiencing bone and joint injuries); cardiovascular events; respiratory disorders; gastrointestinal events; and discontinuation of treatment as a result of one or more adverse reactions.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Avoid use of KYNMOBI in patients with severe and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (CLcr <30 mL/min). No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. However, because of a potential for increased exposure, titrate KYNMOBI under medical supervision [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Avoid use of KYNMOBI in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). No dosage adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B). However, because of a potential for increased exposure, titrate KYNMOBI under medical supervision [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
KYNMOBI contains apomorphine, which is not a controlled substance.
In premarketing clinical experience, KYNMOBI did not reveal any tendency for a withdrawal syndrome or any drug-seeking behavior. However, there are rare postmarketing reports of abuse of medications containing apomorphine. Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its desirable psychological or physiological effects. In general, these reports for apomorphine consist of patients taking increasing doses of medication in order to achieve a euphoric state.
KYNMOBI (apomorphine hydrochloride) sublingual film contains apomorphine hydrochloride, a non-ergoline dopamine agonist. Apomorphine hydrochloride is chemically designated as 6aβ-Aporphine-10,11-diol hydrochloride hemihydrate with a molecular formula of C17 H17 NO2 ∙ HCl∙ ½ H2 O. Its structural formula and molecular weight are:
The molecular weight is 312.79 (hydrochloride hemihydrate salt).
Apomorphine hydrochloride is white to grayish glistening crystals or white powder that is sparingly soluble in water and alcohol at ambient temperature.
KYNMOBI is intended for sublingual administration only and is available in 5 dosage strengths. Each film contains 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg, or 30 mg of apomorphine hydrochloride (equivalent to 8.8 mg, 13.2 mg, 17.6 mg, 22.0 mg, and 26.4 mg of apomorphine, respectively). Each film also contains the following inactive ingredients: disodium EDTA dihydrate, FD&C Blue #1, glycerol, glyceryl monostearate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, maltodextrin, (-)-menthol, pyridoxine hydrochloride, sodium hydroxide, sodium metabisulfite, sucralose, and white ink.
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