Lamivudine

LAMIVUDINE- lamivudine tablet, film coated
AvPAK

WARNING: RISK OF LACTIC ACIDOSIS, EXACERBATIONS OF HEPATITIS B IN CO- INFECTED PATIENTS UPON DISCONTINUATION OF LAMIVUDINE, DIFFERENT FORMULATIONS OF LAMIVUDINE.

Lactic Acidosis and Severe Hepatomegaly: Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including lamivudine and other antiretrovirals. Suspend treatment if clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Exacerbations of Hepatitis B: Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients who are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-l) and have discontinued lamivudine. Hepatic function should be monitored closely with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months in patients who discontinue lamivudine and are co-infected with HIV-l and HBV. If appropriate, initiation of anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

Important Differences Among Lamivudine-Containing Products: Lamivudine Tablets (used to treat HIV-l infection) contain a higher dose of the active ingredient (lamivudine) than EPIVIR-HBV ® Tablets (used to treat chronic HBV infection). Patients with HIV-l infection should receive only dosage forms appropriate for treatment of HIV-1 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

1 INDICATIONS & USAGE

Lamivudine Tablet is a nucleoside analogue indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-l) infection. Limitation of use: The dosage of this product is for HIV-1and not for HBV.

2 DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Adults and Adolescents >16 years of age

The recommended oral dose of lamivudine in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents >16 years of age is 300 mg daily, administered as either 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg once daily, in combination with other antiretroviral agents. If lamivudine is administered to a patient infected with HIV-1 and HBV, the dosage indicated for HIV-l therapy should be used as part of an appropriate combination regimen [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] .

 

2.2 Pediatric Patients

Lamivudine is also available as a scored tablet for HIV-l-infected pediatric patients who weigh ≥14 kg for whom a solid dosage form is appropriate. Before prescribing lamivudine tablets, children should be assessed for the ability to swallow tablets. If a child is unable to reliably swallow lamivudine tablets, the oral solution formulation should be prescribed. The recommended oral dosage of lamivudine tablets for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Dosing Recommendations for Lamivudine Tablets in Pediatric Patients

Weight (kg) Dosage Regimen Using Scored 150 mg Tablet Total Daily Dose
AM Dose
14 to 21 ½ tablet (75 mg) ½ tablet (75 mg) 150 mg
>21 to <30 ½ tablet (75 mg) 1 tablet (150 mg) 225 mg
≥30 1 tablet (150 mg) 1 tablet (150 mg) 300 mg

2.3 Patients With Renal Impairment

Dosing of lamivudine is adjusted in accordance with renal function. Dosage adjustments are listed in Table 2 [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Table 2. Adjustment of Dosage of Lamivudine in Adults and Adolescents (≥30 kg) in Accordance With Creatinine Clearance

Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Recommended Dosage of Lamivudine
≥50 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg once daily
30-49 150 mg once daily
15-29 150 mg first dose, then 100 mg once daily
5-14 150 mg first dose, then 50 mg once daily
<5 50 mg first dose, then 25 mg once daily

No additional dosing of lamivudine is required after routine (4-hour) hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Although there are insufficient data to recommend a specific dose adjustment of lamivudine in pediatric patients with renal impairment, a reduction in the dose and/or an increase in the dosing interval should be considered.

3 DOSAGE FORMS & STRENGTHS

Lamivudine Scored Tablets
150 mg, are white capsule shaped, biconvex, scored film coated tablets debossed with ‘J’ on one side and ‘16’ on the other side, 1 and 6 seperated by a score line.
Lamivudine Tablets 300 mg, are white capsule shaped, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘17’ on one side and ‘J’ on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Lamivudine tablets are contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to any of the components of the products.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Lactic Acidosis/Severe Hepatomegaly With Steatosis

Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of nucleoside analogues alone or in combination, including lamivudine and other antiretrovirals. A majority of these cases have been in women. Obesity and prolonged nucleoside exposure may be risk factors. Particular caution should be exercised when administering lamivudine to any patient with known risk factors for liver disease; however, cases also have been reported in patients with no known risk factors. Treatment with lamivudine should be suspended in any patient who develops clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (which may include hepatomegaly and steatosis even in the absence of marked transaminase elevations).

5.2 Patients With HIV-1 and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection


Posttreatment Exacerbations of Hepatitis: In clinical trials in non-HIV-1- infected patients treated with lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B, clinical and laboratory evidence of exacerbations of hepatitis have occurred after discontinuation of lamivudine. These exacerbations have been detected primarily by serum ALT elevations in addition to re-emergence of HBV DNA. Although most events appear to have been self-limited, fatalities have been reported in some cases. Similar events have been reported from postmarketing experience after changes from lamivudine-containing HIV-1 treatment regimens to non-lamivudine-containing regimens in patients infected with both HIV-1 and HBV. The causal relationship to discontinuation of lamivudine treatment is unknown. Patients should be closely monitored with both clinical and laboratory follow-up for at least several months after stopping treatment. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether re-initiation of lamivudine alters the course of posttreatment exacerbations of hepatitis.

Important Differences Among Lamivudine-Containing Products: Lamivudine Tablets contain a higher dose of the same active ingredient (lamivudine) than EPIVIR- HBV Tablets. EPIVIR-HBV was developed for patients with chronic hepatitis B. The formulation and dosage of lamivudine in EPIVIR-HBV are not appropriate for patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. Safety and efficacy of lamivudine have not been established for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV. If treatment with EPIVIR-HBV is prescribed for chronic hepatitis B for a patient with unrecognized or untreated HIV-1 infection, rapid emergence of HIV-1 resistance is likely to result because of the subtherapeutic dose and the inappropriateness of monotherapy HIV-1 treatment. If a decision is made to administer lamivudine to patients co-infected with HIV-1 and HBV, lamivudine tablets, COMBIVIR ® (lamivudine/zidovudine) Tablets, EPZICOM ® (abacavir sulfate and lamivudine) Tablets, or TRIZIVIR ® (abacavir sulfate, lamivudine, and zidovudine) Tablets should be used as part of an appropriate combination regimen. Emergence of Lamivudine-Resistant HBV: In non-HIV-l-infected patients treated with lamivudine for chronic hepatitis B, emergence of lamivudine-resistant HBV has been detected and has been associated with diminished treatment response (see full prescribing information for EPIVIR-HBV for additional information). Emergence of hepatitis B virus variants associated with resistance to lamivudine has also been reported in HIV-1-infected patients who have received lamivudine-containing antiretroviral regimens in the presence of concurrent infection with hepatitis B virus.

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