Lamivudine (Page 3 of 6)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of LAMIVUDINE.Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to lamivudine.

Body as a Whole
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Endocrine and Metabolic
Hyperglycemia.

a. General:
Weakness.

Hemic and Lymphatic
Anemia (including pure red cell aplasia and severe anemias progressing on therapy).

Hepatic and Pancreatic
Lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis, [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)], post treatment exacerbation of hepatitis B.[see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Hypersensitivity
Anaphylaxis, urticaria.

Musculoskeletal
Muscle weakness, CPK elevation, rhabdomyolysis.

Skin
Alopecia, pruritus.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Lamivudine is predominantly eliminated in the urine by active organic cationic secretion. The possibility of interactions with other drugs administered concurrently should be considered, particularly when their main route of elimination is active renal secretion via the organic cationic transport system (e.g., trimethoprim)[see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]. No data are available regarding interactions with other drugs that have renal clearance mechanisms similar to that of lamivudine.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to LAMIVUDINE during pregnancy. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-258-4263.

Risk Summary
Available data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry show no difference in the risk of overall major birth defects for lamivudine compared with the background rate for major birth defects of 2.7% in the US reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP). Lamivudine produced embryonic toxicity in rabbits at a dose that produced similar human exposures as the recommended clinical dose. The relevance of animal findings to human pregnancy registry data is not known.

Data
Human Data: Based on prospective reports from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry of over 11,000 exposures to lamivudine during pregnancy resulting in live births (including over 4,300 exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between lamivudine and overall birth defects compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the US reference population of the MACDP. The prevalence of defects in the first trimester was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.6% to 3.7%).

Lamivudine pharmacokinetics were studied in pregnant women during 2 clinical trials conducted in South Africa. The trials assessed pharmacokinetics in 16 women at 36 weeks gestation using 150 mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, 10 women at 38 weeks gestation using 150 mg lamivudine twice daily with zidovudine, and 10 women at 38 weeks gestation using lamivudine 300 mg twice daily without other antiretrovirals. These trials were not designed or powered to provide efficacy information. Lamivudine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women were similar to those seen in non-pregnant adults and in postpartum women. Lamivudine concentrations were generally similar in maternal, neonatal, and umbilical cord serum samples. In a subset of subjects, amniotic fluid specimens were collected following natural rupture of membranes and confirmed that lamivudine crosses the placenta in humans. Amniotic fluid concentrations of lamivudine were typically 2 times greater than maternal serum levels and ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 mcg per mL (150 mg twice daily) and 2.1 to 5.2 mcg per mL (300 mg twice daily).

Animal Data: Studies in pregnant rats showed that lamivudine is transferred to the fetus through the placenta. Reproduction studies with orally administered lamivudine have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses producing plasma levels up to approximately 35 times that for the recommended adult HIV dose. No evidence of teratogenicity due to lamivudine was observed. Evidence of early embryolethality was seen in the rabbit at exposure levels similar to those observed in humans but there was no indication of this effect in the rat at exposure levels up to 35 times those in humans.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-1-infected mothers in the United States not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1 infection. Because of the potential for HIV-1 transmission mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of LAMIVUDINE in combination with other antiretroviral agents have been established in pediatric patients aged 3 months and older. LAMIVUDINE scored tablet is the preferred formulation for HIV-1-infected pediatric patients who weigh at least 14 kg and for whom a solid dosage form is appropriate because pediatric subjects who received LAMIVUDINE oral solution had lower rates of virologic suppression, lower plasma lamivudine exposure, and developed viral resistance more frequently than those receiving LAMIVUDINE tablets in the ARROW trial [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.6),Adverse Reactions (6.1),Clinical Pharmacology (12.3),Clinical Studies (14.2)].

8.6 Patients with Impaired Renal Function

Reduction of the dosage of LAMIVUDINE is recommended for patients with impaired renal function

[see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical trials of LAMIVUDINE did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.In general, caution should be exercised in the administration of LAMIVUDINE in elderly patients reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease orother drug therapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

There is no known specific treatment for overdose with LAMIVUDINE. If overdose occurs, the patient should be monitored and standard supportive treatment applied as required. Because a negligible amount of lamivudine was removed via (4-hour) hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and automated peritoneal dialysis, it is not known if continuous hemodialysis would provide clinical benefit in a lamivudine overdose event.

11 DESCRIPTION

LAMIVUDINE (also known as 3TC) is a brand name for lamivudine, a synthetic nucleoside analogue with activity against HIV-1 and HBV. The chemical name of lamivudine is (2R,cis)-4-amino-1- (2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. Lamivudine is the (-) enantiomer of a dideoxy analogue of cytidine. Lamivudine has also been referred to as (-) 2 ,3 ­ dideoxy, 3 — thiacytidine. It has a molecular formula of C8 H11 N3 O3 S and a molecular weight of 229.3 g per mol. It has the following structural formula:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Lamivudine is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of approximately 70 mg per mL in water at 20° C.

LAMIVUDINE tablets are for oral administration. Each scored 150-mg film-coated tablet contains 150 mg of lamivudine and the inactive ingredients hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide.

Each 300-mg film-coated tablet contains 300 mg of lamivudine and the inactive ingredients black iron oxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, sodium starch glycolate, and titanium dioxide

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