LAMOTRIGINE- lamotrigine tablet
Mylan Institutional Inc.
Lamotrigine can cause serious rashes requiring hospitalization and discontinuation of treatment. The incidence of these rashes, which have included Stevens-Johnson syndrome, is approximately 0.3% to 0.8% in pediatric patients (aged 2 to 17 years) and 0.08% to 0.3% in adults receiving lamotrigine. One rash-related death was reported in a prospectively followed cohort of 1,983 pediatric patients (aged 2 to 16 years) with epilepsy taking lamotrigine as adjunctive therapy.
In worldwide postmarketing experience, rare cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis and/or rash-related death have been reported in adult and pediatric patients, but their numbers are too few to permit a precise estimate of the rate.
Other than age, there are as yet no factors identified that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of rash caused by lamotrigine. There are suggestions, yet to be proven, that the risk of rash may also be increased by (1) coadministration of lamotrigine with valproate (includes valproic acid and divalproex sodium), (2) exceeding the recommended initial dose of lamotrigine, or (3) exceeding the recommended dose escalation for lamotrigine. However, cases have occurred in the absence of these factors.
Nearly all cases of life-threatening rashes caused by lamotrigine have occurred within 2 to 8 weeks of treatment initiation. However, isolated cases have occurred after prolonged treatment (e.g., 6 months). Accordingly, duration of therapy cannot be relied upon as means to predict the potential risk heralded by the first appearance of a rash. Although benign rashes are also caused by lamotrigine, it is not possible to predict reliably which rashes will prove to be serious or life threatening. Accordingly, lamotrigine should ordinarily be discontinued at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug related. Discontinuation of treatment may not prevent a rash from becoming life threatening or permanently disabling or disfiguring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Lamotrigine tablets, USP are indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients aged 2 years and older:
- partial-onset seizures.
- primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures.
- generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Lamotrigine tablets are indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (aged 16 years and older) with partial-onset seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED).
Safety and effectiveness of lamotrigine tablets has not been established (1) as initial monotherapy; (2) for conversion to monotherapy from AEDs other than carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate; or (3) for simultaneous conversion to monotherapy from two or more concomitant AEDs.
Lamotrigine tablets, USP are indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in patients treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy Lamotrigine tablets, USP are indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in patients treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Limitations of Use: Treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes is not recommended. Effectiveness of lamotrigine in the acute treatment of mood episodes has not been established.
There are suggestions, yet to be proven, that the risk of severe, potentially life-threatening rash may be increased by (1) coadministration of lamotrigine tablets with valproate, (2) exceeding the recommended initial dose of lamotrigine tablets, or (3) exceeding the recommended dose escalation for lamotrigine tablets. However, cases have occurred in the absence of these factors [see Boxed Warning]. Therefore, it is important that the dosing recommendations be followed closely.
The risk of nonserious rash may be increased when the recommended initial dose and/or the rate of dose escalation for lamotrigine tablets is exceeded and in patients with a history of allergy or rash to other AEDs.
It is recommended that lamotrigine tablets not be restarted in patients who discontinued due to rash associated with prior treatment with lamotrigine unless the potential benefits clearly outweigh the risks. If the decision is made to restart a patient who has discontinued lamotrigine tablets, the need to restart with the initial dosing recommendations should be assessed. The greater the interval of time since the previous dose, the greater consideration should be given to restarting with the initial dosing recommendations. If a patient has discontinued lamotrigine tablets for a period of more than 5 half-lives, it is recommended that initial dosing recommendations and guidelines be followed. The half-life of lamotrigine is affected by other concomitant medications [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Because lamotrigine is metabolized predominantly by glucuronic acid conjugation, drugs that are known to induce or inhibit glucuronidation may affect the apparent clearance of lamotrigine. Drugs that induce glucuronidation include carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, rifampin, estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, and the protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir. Valproate inhibits glucuronidation. For dosing considerations for lamotrigine tablets in patients on estrogen-containing contraceptives and atazanavir/ritonavir, see below and Table 13. For dosing considerations for lamotrigine tablets in patients on other drugs known to induce or inhibit glucuronidation, see Table 1, Table 2, Table 5, Table 6, and Table 13.
A therapeutic plasma concentration range has not been established for lamotrigine. Dosing of lamotrigine tablets should be based on therapeutic response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Although estrogen-containing oral contraceptives have been shown to increase the clearance of lamotrigine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , no adjustments to the recommended dose-escalation guidelines for lamotrigine tablets should be necessary solely based on the use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives. Therefore, dose escalation should follow the recommended guidelines for initiating adjunctive therapy with lamotrigine tablets based on the concomitant AED or other concomitant medications (see Table 1, Table 5, and Table 7). See below for adjustments to maintenance doses of lamotrigine tablets in women taking estrogen-containing oral contraceptives.
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