100 mg, light pink, capsule-shaped, uncoated, biconvex tablet with “C149” debossed on one side and central breakline on the other side.
150 mg, light pink, capsule-shaped, uncoated, biconvex tablet with “C151” debossed on one side and central breakline on the other side.
200 mg, light pink, capsule-shaped, uncoated, biconvex tablet with “C152” debossed on one side and central breakline on the other side.
Lamotrigine is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity (e.g., rash, angioedema, acute urticaria, extensive pruritus, mucosal ulceration) to the drug or its ingredients [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3)].
The incidence of serious rash associated with hospitalization and discontinuation of lamotrigine in a prospectively followed cohort of pediatric patients (aged 2 to 17 years) is approximately 0.3% to 0.8%. One rash-related death was reported in a prospectively followed cohort of 1,983 pediatric patients (aged 2 to 16 years) with epilepsy taking lamotrigine as adjunctive therapy. Additionally, there have been rare cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis with and without permanent sequelae and/or death in US and foreign postmarketing experience.
There is evidence that the inclusion of valproate in a multidrug regimen increases the risk of serious, potentially life-threatening rash in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who used valproate concomitantly for epilepsy, 1.2% (6 of 482) experienced a serious rash compared with 0.6% (6 of 952) patients not taking valproate.
Adult Population Serious rash associated with hospitalization and discontinuation of lamotrigine occurred in 0.3% (11 of 3,348) of adult patients who received lamotrigine in premarketing clinical trials of epilepsy. In the bipolar and other mood disorders clinical trials, the rate of serious rash was 0.08% (1 of 1,233) of adult patients who received lamotrigine as initial monotherapy and 0.13% (2 of 1,538) of adult patients who received lamotrigine as adjunctive therapy. No fatalities occurred among these individuals. However, in worldwide postmarketing experience, rare cases of rash-related death have been reported, but their numbers are too few to permit a precise estimate of the rate.
Among the rashes leading to hospitalization were Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, and those associated with multiorgan hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
There is evidence that the inclusion of valproate in a multidrug regimen increases the risk of serious, potentially life-threatening rash in adults. Specifically, of 584 patients administered lamotrigine with valproate in epilepsy clinical trials, 6 (1%) were hospitalized in association with rash; in contrast, 4 (0.16%) of 2,398 clinical trial patients and volunteers administered lamotrigine in the absence of valproate were hospitalized.
Patients with History of Allergy or Rash to Other Antiepileptic Drugs The risk of nonserious rash may be increased when the recommended initial dose and/or the rate of dose escalation for lamotrigine is exceeded and in patients with a history of allergy or rash to other AEDs.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has occurred in pediatric and adult patients taking lamotrigine for various indications. HLH is a life-threatening syndrome of pathologic immune activation characterized by clinical signs and symptoms of extreme systemic inflammation. It is associated with high mortality rates if not recognized early and treated. Common findings include fever, hepatosplenomegaly, rash, lymphadenopathy, neurologic symptoms, cytopenias, high serum ferritin, hypertriglyceridemia, and liver function and coagulation abnormalities. In cases of HLH reported with lamotrigine, patients have presented with signs of systemic inflammation (fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ system dysfunction) and blood dyscrasias. Symptoms have been reported to occur within 8 to 24 days following the initiation of treatment. Patients who develop early manifestations of pathologic immune activation should be evaluated immediately, and a diagnosis of HLH should be considered. Lamotrigine should be discontinued if an alternative etiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established.
Multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions, also known as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), have occurred with lamotrigine. Some have been fatal or life threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, and/or lymphadenopathy in association with other organ system involvement, such as hepatitis, nephritis, hematologic abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis, sometimes resembling an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. This disorder is variable in its expression, and other organ systems not noted here may be involved.
Fatalities associated with acute multiorgan failure and various degrees of hepatic failure have been reported in 2 of 3,796 adult patients and 4 of 2,435 pediatric patients who received lamotrigine in epilepsy clinical trials. Rare fatalities from multiorgan failure have also been reported in postmarketing use.
Isolated liver failure without rash or involvement of other organs has also been reported with lamotrigine.
It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity (e.g., fever, lymphadenopathy) may be present even though a rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, the patient should be evaluated immediately. Lamotrigine should be discontinued if an alternative etiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established.
Prior to initiation of treatment with lamotrigine, the patient should be instructed that a rash or other signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity (e.g., fever, lymphadenopathy) may herald a serious medical event and that the patient should report any such occurrence to a healthcare provider physician immediately.
There have been reports of blood dyscrasias that may or may not be associated with multiorgan hypersensitivity (also known as DRESS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. These have included neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and, rarely, aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia.
AEDs, including lamotrigine, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono therapy and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to 1 of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared with patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared with 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately 1 case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were 4 suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number of events is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as 1 week after starting treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanism of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed.
Table 7 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
|Indication||Placebo Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients||Drug Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients||Relative risk: Incidence of Events In Drug Patients/ Incidence in Placebo Patients||Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events per 1,000 Patients|
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing lamotrigine or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, the emergence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
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