Lamotrigine Extended Release (Page 6 of 11)

6.3 Postmarketing Experience with Immediate-Release Lamotrigine

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of the immediate-release lamotrigine. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Blood and Lymphatic

Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy not associated with hypersensitivity disorder.

Gastrointestinal

Esophagitis.

Hepatobiliary Tract and Pancreas

Pancreatitis.

Immunologic

Hypogammaglobulinemia,Lupus-like reaction, vasculitis.

Lower Respiratory

Apnea.

Musculoskeletal

Rhabdomyolysis has been observed in patients experiencing hypersensitivity reactions.

Nervous System

Aggression, exacerbation of Parkinsonian symptoms in patients with pre-existing Parkinson’s disease, tics.

Non-site Specific

Progressive immunosuppression.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Significant drug interactions with lamotrigine are summarized in this section. Additional details of these drug interaction studies, which were conducted using the immediate-release lamotrigine, are provided in the Clinical Pharmacology section [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Uridine 5´-diphospho-glucuronyl transferases (UGT) have been identified as the enzymes responsible for metabolism of lamotrigine. Drugs that induce or inhibit glucuronidation may, therefore, affect the apparent clearance of lamotrigine. Strong or moderate inducers of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme, which are also known to induce UGT, may also enhance the metabolism of lamotrigine.

Those drugs have been demonstrated to have a clinically significant impact on lamotrigine metabolism are outlined in Table 13. Specific dosing guidance for these drugs is provided in the Dosage and Administration section [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

Table 5. Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions
↓= Decreased (induces lamotrigine glucuronidation).
↑= Increased (inhibits lamotrigine glucuronidation).
? = Conflicting data.

Concomitant Drug

Effect on Concentration of Lamotrigine or Concomitant Drug

Clinical Comment

Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive preparations containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 150 mcg levonorgestrel

↓ lamotrigine

↓levonorgestrel

Decreased lamotrigine concentrations approximately 50%.

Decrease in levonorgestrel component by 19%.

Carbamazepine and Carbamazepine epoxide

↓ lamotrigine

? carbamazepine epoxide

Addition of carbamazepine decreases lamotrigine concentration approximately 40%. May increase carbamazepine epoxide levels.

Lopinavir/ritonavir

↓ lamotrigine

Decreased lamotrigine concentration approximately 50%.

Atazanavir/ritonavir

↓ lamotrigine

Decreased lamotrigine AUC approximately 32%.

Phenobarbital/primidone

↓ lamotrigine

Decreased lamotrigine concentration approximately 40%.

Phenytoin

↓ lamotrigine

Decreased lamotrigine concentration approximately 40%.

Rifampin

↓ lamotrigine

Decreased lamotrigine AUC approximately 40%.

Valproate

↑ lamotrigine

? valproate

Increased lamotrigine concentrations slightly more than 2-fold.

There are conflicting study results regarding effect of lamotrigine on valproate concentrations: 1) a mean 25% decrease in valproate concentrations in healthy volunteers, 2) no change in valproate concentrations in controlled clinical trials in patients with epilepsy.

Effect of Lamotrigine Extended-Release on Organic Cationic Transporter 2 Substrates

Lamotrigine is an inhibitor of renal tubular secretion via organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2) proteins [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. This may result in increased plasma levels of certain drugs that are substantially excreted via this route. Coadministration of lamotrigine extended-release with OCT2 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., dofetilide) is not recommended.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to AEDs, including lamotrigine extended-release, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking lamotrigine extended-release during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.

Risk Summary

Data from several prospective pregnancy exposure registries and epidemiological studies of pregnant women have not detected an increased frequency of major congenital malformations or a consistent pattern of malformations among women exposed to lamotrigine compared with the general population (see Data). In animal studies, administration of lamotrigine during pregnancy resulted in developmental toxicity (increased mortality, decreased body weight, increased structural variation, neurobehavioral abnormalities) at doses lower than those administered clinically.

Lamotrigine decreased fetal folate concentrations in rats, an effect known to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans (see Data).

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

As with other AEDs, physiological changes during pregnancy may affect lamotrigine concentrations and/or therapeutic effect. There have been reports of decreased lamotrigine concentrations during pregnancy and restoration of pre-pregnancy concentrations after delivery. Dose adjustments may be necessary to maintain clinical response.

Data

Human Data: Data from several international pregnancy registries have not shown an increased risk for malformations overall. The International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry reported major congenital malformations in 2.2% (95% CI: 1.6%, 3.1%) of 1,558 infants exposed to lamotrigine monotherapy in the first trimester of pregnancy. The NAAED Pregnancy Registry reported major congenital malformations among 2.0% of 1,562 infants exposed to lamotrigine monotherapy in the first trimester. EURAP, a large international pregnancy registry focused outside of North America, reported major birth defects in 2.9% (95% CI: 2.3%, 3.7%) of 2,514 exposures to lamotrigine monotherapy in the first trimester. The frequency of major congenital malformations was similar to estimates from the general population.

The NAAED Pregnancy Registry observed an increased risk of isolated oral clefts: among 2,200 infants exposed to lamotrigine early in pregnancy, the risk of oral clefts was 3.2 per 1,000 (95% CI: 1.4, 6.3), a 3-fold increased risk versus unexposed healthy controls. This finding has not been observed in other large international pregnancy registries. Furthermore, a case-control study based on 21 congenital anomaly registries covering over 10 million births in Europe reported an adjusted odds ratio for isolated oral clefts with lamotrigine exposure of 1.45 (95% CI: 0.8, 2.63).

Several meta-analyses have not reported an increased risk of major congenital malformations following lamotrigine exposure in pregnancy compared with healthy and disease-matched controls. No patterns of specific malformation types were observed.

The same meta-analyses evaluated the risk of additional maternal and infant outcomes including fetal death, stillbirth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and neurodevelopmental delay.

Although there are no data suggesting an increased risk of these outcomes with lamotrigine monotherapy exposure, differences in outcome definition, ascertainment methods, and comparator groups limit the conclusions that can be drawn.

Animal Data: When lamotrigine was administered to pregnant mice, rats, or rabbits during the period of organogenesis (oral doses of up to 125, 25, and 30 mg/kg, respectively), reduced fetal body weight and increased incidences of fetal skeletal variations were seen in mice and rats at doses that were also maternally toxic. The no-effect doses for embryofetal developmental toxicity in mice, rats, and rabbits (75, 6.25, and 30 mg/kg, respectively) are similar to (mice and rabbits) or less than (rats) the human dose of 400 mg/day on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.

In a study in which pregnant rats were administered lamotrigine (oral doses of 0, 5, or 25 mg/kg) during the period of organogenesis and offspring were evaluated postnatally, neurobehavioral abnormalities were observed in exposed offspring at both doses. The lowest effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats is less than the human dose of 400 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. Maternal toxicity was observed at the higher dose tested.

When pregnant rats were administered lamotrigine (oral doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation, increased offspring mortality (including stillbirths) was seen at all doses. The lowest effect dose for pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats is less than the human dose of 400 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. Maternal toxicity was observed at the 2 highest doses tested.

When administered to pregnant rats, lamotrigine decreased fetal folate concentrations at doses greater than or equal to 5 mg/kg/day, which is less than the human dose of 400 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis.

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