Lansoprazole (Page 4 of 12)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Additional adverse experiences have been reported since lansoprazole has been marketed. The majority of these cases are foreign-sourced and a relationship to lansoprazole has not been established. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events are listed below by COSTART body system.

Body as a Whole: anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions, systemic lupus erythematosus;

Digestive System: hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, vomiting;

Hemic and Lymphatic System: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura;

Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea;

Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders: hypomagnesemia;

Musculoskeletal System: bone fracture, myositis;

Skin and Appendages: severe dermatologic reactions including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), cutaneous lupus erythematosus;

Special Senses: speech disorder;

Urogenital System: interstitial nephritis, urinary retention.

6.3 Combination Therapy with Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin

In clinical trials using combination therapy with lansoprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and lansoprazole plus amoxicillin, no adverse reactions peculiar to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions that have occurred have been limited to those that had been previously reported with lansoprazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin.

Triple Therapy

Lansoprazole/Amoxicillin/Clarithromycin

The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received triple therapy for 14 days were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%). There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of reported adverse reactions between the 10 and 14 day triple therapy regimens. No treatment-emergent adverse reactions were observed at significantly higher rates with triple therapy than with any dual therapy regimen.

Dual Therapy

Lansoprazole/Amoxicillin

The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received lansoprazole three times daily plus amoxicillin three times daily dual therapy were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). No treatment-emergent adverse reactions were observed at significantly higher rates with lansoprazole three times daily plus amoxicillin three times daily dual therapy than with lansoprazole alone.

For information about adverse reactions with antibacterial agents (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section of their prescribing information.

6.4 Laboratory Values

The following changes in laboratory parameters in patients who received lansoprazole were reported as adverse reactions:

Abnormal liver function tests, increased SGOT (AST), increased SGPT (ALT), increased creatinine, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased globulins, increased GGTP, increased/decreased/abnormal WBC, abnormal AG ratio, abnormal RBC, bilirubinemia, blood potassium increased, blood urea increased, crystal urine present, eosinophilia, hemoglobin decreased, hyperlipemia, increased/decreased electrolytes, increased/decreased cholesterol, increased glucocorticoids, increased LDH, increased/decreased/abnormal platelets, increased gastrin levels and positive fecal occult blood. Urine abnormalities such as albuminuria, glycosuria, and hematuria were also reported. Additional isolated laboratory abnormalities were reported.

In the placebo controlled studies, when SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT) were evaluated, 0.4% (4/978) and 0.4% (11/2677) patients, who received placebo and lansoprazole, respectively, had enzyme elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal range at the final treatment visit. None of these patients who received lansoprazole reported jaundice at any time during the study.

In clinical trials using combination therapy with lansoprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and lansoprazole plus amoxicillin, no increased laboratory abnormalities particular to these drug combinations were observed.

For information about laboratory value changes with antibacterial agents (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section of their prescribing information.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Drugs with pH-Dependent Absorption

Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, lansoprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. As with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ampicillin esters, ketoconazole, atazanavir, nelfinavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with lansoprazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Lansoprazole is likely to substantially decrease the systemic concentrations of HIV protease inhibitors, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, which are dependent upon the presence of gastric acid for absorption, and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect of atazanavir or nelfinavir and the development of HIV resistance. Therefore, lansoprazole should not be co-administered with atazanavir or nelfinavir [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

Co-administration of PPIs in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and MMF. Use lansoprazole with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF.

7.2 Warfarin

In a study of healthy subjects, co-administration of single or multiple 60 mg doses of lansoprazole and warfarin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin nor prothrombin time [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . However, there have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with PPIs and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

7.3 Tacrolimus

Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and tacrolimus may increase whole blood levels of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19.

7.4 Theophylline

A minor increase (10%) in the clearance of theophylline was observed following the administration of lansoprazole concomitantly with theophylline. Although the magnitude of the effect on theophylline clearance is small, individual patients may require additional titration of their theophylline dosage when lansoprazole is started or stopped to ensure clinically effective blood levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

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