Lansoprazole (Page 5 of 12)

7.5 Clopidogrel

Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and clopidogrel in healthy subjects had no clinically important effect on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . No dose adjustment of clopidogrel is necessary when administered with an approved dose of lansoprazole.

7.6 Methotrexate

Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of high dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] .

In a study of rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving low-dose methotrexate, lansoprazole and naproxen, no effect on pharmacokinetics of methotrexate was observed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .

7.7 Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin

Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions due to drug interactions [see Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin]. Because of these drug interactions, clarithromycin is contraindicated for co-administration with certain drugs [see Contraindications in prescribing information for clarithromycin].

For information about drug interactions of antibacterial agents (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the DRUG INTERACTIONS section of their prescribing information.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category B

Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 40 times the recommended human dose and in pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 16 times the recommended human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lansoprazole. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)] .

See full prescribing information for clarithromycin before using in pregnant women.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Lansoprazole or its metabolites are excreted in the milk of rats. It is not known whether lansoprazole is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from lansoprazole, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lansoprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue lansoprazole, taking into account the importance of lansoprazole to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole have been established in pediatric patients one to 17 years of age for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis, however, lansoprazole was not effective in patients with symptomatic GERD one month to less than one year of age in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Neonate to Less Than One Year of Age

The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and one to 11 months. Compared to healthy adults receiving 30 mg, neonates had higher exposure (mean weight-based normalized AUC values 2.04- and 1.88-fold higher at doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day, respectively). Infants aged ≤ 10 weeks had clearance and exposure values that were similar to neonates. Infants aged greater than 10 weeks who received 1 mg/kg/day had mean AUC values that were similar to adults who received a 30 mg dose.

Lansoprazole was not found to be effective in a U.S. and Polish four week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 162 patients between one month and less than 12 months of age with symptomatic GERD based on a medical history of crying/fussing/irritability associated with feedings who had not responded to conservative GERD management (i.e., non-pharmacologic intervention) for seven to 14 days. Patients received lansoprazole as a suspension daily (0.2 mg/kg/day to 0.3 mg/kg/day in infants ≤ 10 weeks of age or 1.0 mg/kg/day to 1.5 mg/kg/day in infants greater than 10 weeks or placebo) for up to four weeks of double-blind treatment.

The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed by greater than 50% reduction from baseline in either the percent of feedings with a crying/fussing/irritability episode or the duration (minutes) of a crying/fussing/irritability episode within one hour after feeding.

There was no difference in the percentage of responders between the lansoprazole pediatric suspension group and placebo group (54% in both groups).

There were no adverse events reported in pediatric clinical studies (one month to less than 12 months of age) that were not previously observed in adults.

Based on the results of the Phase 3 efficacy study, lansoprazole was not shown to be effective. Therefore, these results do not support the use of lansoprazole in treating symptomatic GERD in infants.

One to 11 Years of Age

In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 66 pediatric patients (one to 11 years of age) with GERD were assigned, based on body weight, to receive an initial dose of either lansoprazole 15 mg daily if ≤ 30 kg or lansoprazole 30 mg daily if greater than 30 kg administered for eight to 12 weeks. The lansoprazole dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in 24 of 66 pediatric patients after two or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. At baseline 85% of patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interview), 58% had non-erosive GERD and 42% had erosive esophagitis (assessed by endoscopy).

After eight to 12 weeks of lansoprazole treatment, the intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated an approximate 50% reduction in frequency and severity of GERD symptoms.

Twenty-one of 27 erosive esophagitis patients were healed at eight weeks and 100% of patients were healed at 12 weeks by endoscopy ( Table 2).

Table 2. GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age One to 11
*
At Week 8 or Week 12.
Symptoms assessed by patients diary kept by caregiver.
No data were available for four pediatric patients.

GERD

Final Visit * % (n/N)

Symptomatic GERD

Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms

76% (47/62 )

Erosive Esophagitis

Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms

81% (22/27)

Healing Rate

100% (27/27)

In a study of 66 pediatric patients in the age group one year to 11 years old after treatment with lansoprazole given orally in doses of 15 mg daily to 30 mg twice daily, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies. Median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 89% from 51 pg/mL at baseline to 97 pg/mL [interquartile range (25 th to 75 th percentile) of 71 to 130 pg/mL] at the final visit.

The pediatric safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in 66 pediatric patients aged one to 11 years of age. Of the 66 patients with GERD 85% (56/66) took lansoprazole for eight weeks and 15% (10/66) took it for 12 weeks.

The most frequently reported (two or more patients) treatment-related adverse reactions in patients one to 11 years of age (N = 66) were constipation (5%) and headache (3%).

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