The following adverse drug reactions have been identified from the worldwide post-marketing experience with lenalidomide capsules. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure [see Warnings and Precautions Section (5.8 to 5.11, and 5.13)].
Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism
Hepatobiliary disorders: Hepatic failure (including fatality), toxic hepatitis, cytolytic hepatitis, cholestatic hepatitis, mixed cytolytic/cholestatic hepatitis, transient abnormal liver laboratory tests
Immune system disorders: Angioedema, anaphylaxis, acute graft-versus-host disease (following allogeneic hematopoietic transplant), solid organ transplant rejection
Infections and infestations: Viral reactivation (such as hepatitis B virus and herpes zoster), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps): Tumor lysis syndrome, tumor flare reaction
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Pneumonitis
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)
When digoxin was co-administered with multiple doses of lenalidomide capsules (10 mg/day) the digoxin Cmax and AUCinf were increased by 14%. Periodically monitor digoxin plasma levels, in accordance with clinical judgment and based on standard clinical practice in patients receiving this medication, during administration of lenalidomide capsules.
Erythropoietic agents, or other agents that may increase the risk of thrombosis, such as estrogen containing therapies, should be used with caution after making a benefit-risk assessment in patients receiving lenalidomide [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Co-administration of multiple doses of lenalidomide capsules (10 mg/day) with a single dose of warfarin (25 mg) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide or R- and S-warfarin. Expected changes in laboratory assessments of PT and INR were observed after warfarin administration, but these changes were not affected by concomitant lenalidomide capsules administration. It is not known whether there is an interaction between dexamethasone and warfarin. Close monitoring of PT and INR is recommended in patients with MM taking concomitant warfarin.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in females exposed to lenalidomide capsules during pregnancy as well as female partners of male patients who are exposed to lenalidomide capsules. This registry is also used to understand the root cause for the pregnancy. Report any suspected fetal exposure to lenalidomide capsules to the FDA via the MedWatch program at 1-800-FDA-1088 and also to the REMS Call Center at 1‐888‐423‐5436.
Based on the mechanism of action [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)] and findings from animal studies [see Data] , lenalidomide can cause embryo-fetal harm when administered to a pregnant female and is contraindicated during pregnancy [see Boxed Warning, Contraindications (4.1), and Use in Specific Populations (5.1)].
Lenalidomide is a thalidomide analogue. Thalidomide is a human teratogen, inducing a high frequency of severe and life-threatening birth defects such as amelia (absence of limbs), phocomelia (short limbs), hypoplasticity of the bones, absence of bones, external ear abnormalities (including anotia, micropinna, small or absent external auditory canals), facial palsy, eye abnormalities (anophthalmos, microphthalmos), and congenital heart defects. Alimentary tract, urinary tract, and genital malformations have also been documented and mortality at or shortly after birth has been reported in about 40% of infants.
Lenalidomide caused thalidomide-type limb defects in monkey offspring. Lenalidomide crossed the placenta after administration to pregnant rabbits and pregnant rats [see Data]. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential risk to a fetus.
If pregnancy does occur during treatment, immediately discontinue the drug. Under these conditions, refer patient to an obstetrician/gynecologist experienced in reproductive toxicity for further evaluation and counseling. Report any suspected fetal exposure to lenalidomide capsules to the FDA via the MedWatch program at 1-800-FDA-1088 and also to the REMS Call Center at 1‐888‐423‐5436.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2% to 4% and of miscarriage is 15% to 20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
In an embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study in monkeys, teratogenicity, including thalidomide-like limb defects, occurred in offspring when pregnant monkeys received oral lenalidomide during organogenesis. Exposure (AUC) in monkeys at the lowest dose was 0.17 times the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 25 mg. Similar studies in pregnant rabbits and rats at 20 times and 200 times the MRHD respectively, produced embryo lethality in rabbits and no adverse reproductive effects in rats.
In a pre- and post-natal development study in rats, animals received lenalidomide from organogenesis through lactation. The study revealed a few adverse effects on the offspring of female rats treated with lenalidomide at doses up to 500 mg/kg (approximately 200 times the human dose of 25 mg based on body surface area). The male offspring exhibited slightly delayed sexual maturation and the female offspring had slightly lower body weight gains during gestation when bred to male offspring. As with thalidomide, the rat model may not adequately address the full spectrum of potential human embryo-fetal developmental effects for lenalidomide.
Following daily oral administration of lenalidomide from Gestation Day 7 through Gestation Day 20 in pregnant rabbits, fetal plasma lenalidomide concentrations were approximately 20% to 40% of the maternal Cmax . Following a single oral dose to pregnant rats, lenalidomide was detected in fetal plasma and tissues; concentrations of radioactivity in fetal tissues were generally lower than those in maternal tissues. These data indicated that lenalidomide crossed the placenta.
There is no information regarding the presence of lenalidomide in human milk, the effects of lenalidomide capsules on the breastfed child, or the effects of lenalidomide on milk production. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions in breastfed children from lenalidomide capsules, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with lenalidomide capsules.
Lenalidomide capsules can cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating lenalidomide capsules therapy and during therapy. Advise females of reproductive potential that they must avoid pregnancy 4 weeks before therapy, while taking lenalidomide capsules, during dose interruptions and for at least 4 weeks after completing therapy.
Females of reproductive potential must have 2 negative pregnancy tests before initiating lenalidomide capsules. The first test should be performed within 10 to 14 days, and the second test within 24 hours prior to prescribing lenalidomide capsules. Once treatment has started and during dose interruptions, pregnancy testing for females of reproductive potential should occur weekly during the first 4 weeks of use, then pregnancy testing should be repeated every 4 weeks in females with regular menstrual cycles. If menstrual cycles are irregular, the pregnancy testing should occur every 2 weeks. Pregnancy testing and counseling should be performed if a patient misses her period or if there is any abnormality in her menstrual bleeding. Lenalidomide treatment must be discontinued during this evaluation.
Females of reproductive potential must commit either to abstain continuously from heterosexual sexual intercourse or to use 2 methods of reliable birth control simultaneously: one highly effective form of contraception – tubal ligation, IUD, hormonal (birth control pills, injections, hormonal patches, vaginal rings, or implants), or partner’s vasectomy, and 1 additional effective contraceptive method – male latex or synthetic condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap. Contraception must begin 4 weeks prior to initiating treatment with lenalidomide capsules, during therapy, during dose interruptions, and continuing for 4 weeks following discontinuation of lenalidomide therapy. Reliable contraception is indicated even where there has been a history of infertility, unless due to hysterectomy. Females of reproductive potential should be referred to a qualified provider of contraceptive methods, if needed.
Lenalidomide is present in the semen of males who take lenalidomide capsules. Therefore, males must always use a latex or synthetic condom during any sexual contact with females of reproductive potential while taking lenalidomide capsules and for up to 4 weeks after discontinuing lenalidomide capsules, even if they have undergone a successful vasectomy. Male patients taking lenalidomide capsules must not donate sperm and for up to 4 weeks after discontinuing lenalidomide capsules.
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