Lenalidomide (Page 6 of 12)
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
8.5 Geriatric Use
MM In Combination: Overall, of the 1613 patients in the NDMM study who received study treatment, 94% (1521/1613) were 65 years of age or older, while 35% (561/1613) were over 75 years of age. The percentage of patients over age 75 was similar between study arms (Rd Continuous: 33%; Rd18: 34%; MPT: 33%). Overall, across all treatment arms, the frequency in most of the adverse reaction categories (eg, all adverse reactions, grade 3/4 adverse reactions, serious adverse reactions) was higher in older (> 75 years of age) than in younger (≤ 75 years of age) subjects. Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions in the General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions body system were consistently reported at a higher frequency (with a difference of at least 5%) in older subjects than in younger subjects across all treatment arms. Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions in the Infections and Infestations, Cardiac Disorders (including cardiac failure and congestive cardiac failure), Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders, and Renal and Urinary Disorders (including renal failure) body systems were also reported slightly, but consistently, more frequently (<5% difference), in older subjects than in younger subjects across all treatment arms. For other body systems (e.g., Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders, Infections and Infestations, Cardiac Disorders, Vascular Disorders), there was a less consistent trend for increased frequency of grade 3/4 adverse reactions in older vs younger subjects across all treatment arms Serious adverse reactions were generally reported at a higher frequency in the older subjects than in the younger subjects across all treatment arms.
MM After At Least One Prior Therapy: Of the 703 MM patients who received study treatment in Studies 1 and 2, 45% were age 65 or over while 12% of patients were age 75 and over. The percentage of patients age 65 or over was not significantly different between the lenalidomide/dexamethasone and placebo/dexamethasone groups. Of the 353 patients who received lenalidomide/dexamethasone, 46% were age 65 and over. In both studies, patients > 65 years of age were more likely than patients ≤ 65 years of age to experience DVT, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation, and renal failure following use of lenalidomide capsules. No differences in efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years of age and younger patients.
Of the 148 patients with del 5q MDS enrolled in the major study, 38% were age 65 and over, while 33% were age 75 and over. Although the overall frequency of adverse reactions (100%) was the same in patients over 65 years of age as in younger patients, the frequency of serious adverse reactions was higher in patients over 65 years of age than in younger patients (54% vs. 33%). A greater proportion of patients over 65 years of age discontinued from the clinical studies because of adverse reactions than the proportion of younger patients (27% vs.16%). No differences in efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years of age and younger patients.
Of the 134 patients with MCL enrolled in the MCL trial, 63% were age 65 and over, while 22% of patients were age 75 and over. The overall frequency of adverse reactions was similar in patients over 65 years of age and in younger patients (98% vs. 100%). The overall incidence of grade 3 and 4 adverse reactions was also similar in these 2 patient groups (79% vs. 78%, respectively). The frequency of serious adverse reactions was higher in patients over 65 years of age than in younger patients (55% vs. 41%). No differences in efficacy were observed between patients over 65 years of age and younger patients.
Since elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection. Monitor renal function.
8.6 Renal Impairment
Adjust the starting dose of lenalidomide capsules based on the creatinine clearance value and for patients on dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
There is no specific experience in the management of lenalidomide overdose in patients with MM, MDS, or MCL. In dose-ranging studies in healthy subjects, some were exposed to up to 200 mg (administered 100 mg BID) and in single-dose studies, some subjects were exposed to up to 400 mg. Pruritus, urticaria, rash, and elevated liver transaminases were the primary reported AEs. In clinical trials, the dose-limiting toxicity was neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
Lenalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, is an immunomodulatory agent with antiangiogenic and antineoplastic properties. The chemical name is 3-(4-amino-1-oxo 1,3-dihydro-2H -isoindol-2-yl) piperidine-2,6-dione and it has the following chemical structure:
3-(4-amino-1-oxo 1,3-dihydro-2H -isoindol-2-yl) piperidine-2,6-dione
The empirical formula for lenalidomide is C13 H13 N3 O3 , and the gram molecular weight is 259.3.
Lenalidomide is a cream to light yellow color powder. It is soluble in organic solvent/water mixtures, and buffered aqueous solvents. Lenalidomide is more soluble in organic solvents and low pH solutions. Solubility was significantly lower in less acidic buffers, ranging from about 0.4 to 0.5 mg/ml. Lenalidomide has an asymmetric carbon atom and can exist as the optically active forms S(-) and R(+), and is produced as a racemic mixture with a net optical rotation of zero.
Lenalidomide is available in 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg and 25 mg capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains lenalidomide as the active ingredient and the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose. The capsule shell ingredients common to all strengths are gelatin and titanium dioxide. Each capsule is printed with black ink, which includes black iron oxide, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, shellac, and strong ammonia solution.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Lenalidomide is an analogue of thalidomide with immunomodulatory, antiangiogenic, and antineoplastic properties. Cellular activities of lenalidomide are mediated through its target cereblon, a component of a cullin ring E3 ubiquitin ligase enzyme complex. In vitro , in the presence of drug, substrate proteins (including Aiolos, Ikaros, and CK1α) are targeted for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation leading to direct cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects. Lenalidomide inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of certain hematopoietic tumor cells including MM, mantle cell lymphoma, and del (5q) myelodysplastic syndromes in vitro. Lenalidomide causes a delay in tumor growth in some in vivo nonclinical hematopoietic tumor models including MM. Immunomodulatory properties of lenalidomide include increased number and activation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells leading to direct and enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) via increased secretion of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, increased numbers of NKT cells, and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α and IL-6) by monocytes. In MM cells, the combination of lenalidomide and dexamethasone synergizes the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis.
The effect of lenalidomide on the QTc interval was evaluated in 60 healthy male subjects in a thorough QT study. At a dose two times the maximum recommended dose, lenalidomide did not prolong the QTc interval. The largest upper bound of the two-sided 90% CI for the mean differences between lenalidomide and placebo was below 10 ms.
Following single and multiple doses of lenalidomide capsules in patients with MM or MDS, the maximum plasma concentrations occurred between 0.5 and 6 hours post-dose. The single and multiple dose pharmacokinetic disposition of lenalidomide is linear with AUC and Cmax values increasing proportionally with dose. Multiple doses of lenalidomide at the recommended dosage does not result in drug accumulation.
Administration of a single 25 mg dose of lenalidomide capsules with a high-fat meal in healthy subjects reduces the extent of absorption, with an approximate 20% decrease in AUC and 50% decrease in Cmax . In the trials where the efficacy and safety were established for lenalidomide capsules, the drug was administered without regard to food intake. Lenalidomide capsules can be administered with or without food.
The oral absorption rate of lenalidomide in patients with MCL is similar to that observed in patients with MM or MDS.
In vitro [14 C]-lenalidomide binding to plasma proteins is approximately 30%.
Lenalidomide is present in semen at 2 hours (1379 ng/ejaculate) and 24 hours (35 ng/ejaculate) after the administration of lenalidomide 25 mg daily.
The mean half-life of lenalidomide is 3 hours in healthy subjects and 3 to 5 hours in patients with MM, MDS or MCL.
Lenalidomide undergoes limited metabolism. Unchanged lenalidomide is the predominant circulating component in humans. Two identified metabolites are 5-hydroxy-lenalidomide and N-acetyl-lenalidomide; each constitutes less than 5% of parent levels in circulation.
Elimination is primarily renal. Following a single oral administration of [14 C]-lenalidomide 25 mg to healthy subjects, approximately 90% and 4% of the radioactive dose was eliminated within ten days in urine and feces, respectively. Approximately 82% of the radioactive dose was excreted as lenalidomide in the urine within 24 hours. Hydroxy-lenalidomide and N-acetyl-lenalidomide represented 4.6% and 1.8% of the excreted dose, respectively. The renal clearance of lenalidomide exceeds the glomerular filtration rate.
Renal Impairment: Eight subjects with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance (CLcr) 50 to 79 mL/min calculated using Cockcroft-Gault), 9 subjects with moderate renal impairment (CLcr 30 to 49 mL/min), 4 subjects with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min), and 6 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis were administered a single 25 mg dose of lenalidomide capsules. Three healthy subjects of similar age with normal renal function (CLcr > 80 mL/min) were also administered a single 25 mg dose of lenalidomide capsules. As CLcr decreased, half-life increased and drug clearance decreased linearly. Patients with moderate and severe impairment had a 3-fold increase in half-life and a 66% to 75% decrease in drug clearance compared to healthy subjects. Patients on hemodialysis (n=6) had an approximate 4.5-fold increase in half-life and an 80% decrease in drug clearance compared to healthy subjects. Approximately 30% of the drug in body was removed during a 4-hour hemodialysis session.
Adjust the starting dose of lenalidomide capsules in patients with renal impairment based on the CLcr value [see Dosage and Administration (2.6)].
Hepatic Impairment: Mild hepatic impairment (defined as total bilirubin > 1 to 1.5 times upper limit normal (ULN) or any aspartate transaminase greater than ULN) did not influence the disposition of lenalidomide. No pharmacokinetic data is available for patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment.
Other Intrinsic Factors: Age (39 to 85 years), body weight (33 to 135 kg), sex, race, and type of hematological malignancies (MM, MDS or MCL) did not have a clinically relevant effect on lenalidomide clearance in adult patients.
Co-administration of a single dose or multiple doses of dexamethasone (40 mg) had no clinically relevant effect on the multiple dose pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide (25 mg).
Co-administration of lenalidomide capsules (25 mg) after multiple doses of a P-gp inhibitor such as quinidine (600 mg twice daily) did not significantly increase the Cmax or AUC of lenalidomide.
Co-administration of the P-gp inhibitor and substrate temsirolimus (25 mg), with lenalidomide capsules (25 mg) did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide, temsirolimus, or sirolimus (metabolite of temsirolimus).
In vitro studies demonstrated that lenalidomide is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Lenalidomide is not a substrate of human breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporters MRP1, MRP2, or MRP3, organic anion transporters (OAT) OAT1 and OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), organic cation transporters (OCT) OCT1 and OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE) MATE1, and organic cation transporters novel (OCTN) OCTN1 and OCTN2. Lenalidomide is not an inhibitor of P-gp, bile salt export pump (BSEP), BCRP, MRP2, OAT1, OAT3, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OCT2. Lenalidomide does not inhibit or induce CYP450 isoenzymes. Also, lenalidomide does not inhibit bilirubin glucuronidation formation in human liver microsomes with UGT1A1 genotyped as UGT1A1*1/*1, UGT1A1*1/*28, and UGT1A1*28/*28.
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