In the combined analysis of the first- and second-line metastatic trials and post-marketing experiences other adverse reactions that were reported were cataract, eye irritation, palpitations, cardiac failure, tachycardia, dysesthesia (including hypesthesia/paresthesia), arterial thrombosis, memory impairment, irritability, nervousness, urticaria, increased urinary frequency, leukopenia, stomatitis cancer pain, pyrexia, vaginal discharge, appetite increase, dryness of skin and mucosa (including dry mouth), and disturbances of taste and thirst.
Cases of blurred vision, increased hepatic enzymes, angioedema, anaphylactic reactions, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme and hepatitis have been reported. Cases of carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger have been identified during post approval use of letrozole.
Tamoxifen: Coadministration of letrozole and tamoxifen 20 mg daily resulted in a reduction of letrozole plasma levels of 38% on average. Clinical experience in the second-line breast cancer trials indicates that the therapeutic effect of letrozole therapy is not impaired if letrozole is administered immediately after tamoxifen.
Cimetidine: A pharmacokinetic interaction study with cimetidine showed no clinically significant effect on letrozole pharmacokinetics.
Warfarin: An interaction study with warfarin showed no clinically significant effect of letrozole on warfarin pharmacokinetics.
Other Anticancer Agents: There is no clinical experience to date on the use of letrozole in combination with other anticancer agents.
[see Contraindications (4)]. Letrozole may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman and the clinical benefit to premenopausal women with breast cancer has not been demonstrated. Letrozole is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.
Letrozole caused adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital malformations, in rats and rabbits at doses much smaller than the daily maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis. Effects included increased post-implantation pregnancy loss and resorptions, fewer live fetuses, and fetal malformations affecting the renal and skeletal systems. Animal data and letrozole’s mechanism of action raise concerns that letrozole could be a human teratogen as well.
Reproduction studies in rats showed embryo and fetal toxicity at letrozole doses during organogenesis equal to or greater than 1/100 the daily maximum recommended human dose (MHRD) (mg/m2 basis). Adverse effects included: intrauterine mortality; increased resorptions and postimplantation loss; decreased numbers of live fetuses; and fetal anomalies including absence and shortening of renal papilla, dilation of ureter, edema and incomplete ossification of frontal skull and metatarsals. Letrozole doses 1/10 the daily MHRD (mg/m2 basis) caused fetal domed head and cervical/centrum vertebral fusion. In rabbits, letrozole caused embryo and fetal toxicity at doses about 1/100,000 and 1/10,000 the daily MHRD respectively (mg/m2 basis). Fetal anomalies included incomplete ossification of the skull, sternebrae and fore- and hind legs [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
Physicians should discuss the need for adequate contraception with women who are recently menopausal. Contraception should be used until postmenopausal status is clinically well established.
It is not known if letrozole is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from letrozole, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
The median age of patients in all studies of first-line and second-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer was 64 to 65 years. About 1/3 of the patients were ≥ 70 years old. In the first-line study, patients ≥70 years of age experienced longer time to tumor progression and higher response rates than patients < 70.
For the extended adjuvant setting, more than 5,100 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the clinical study. In total, 41% of patients were aged 65 years or older at enrollment, while 12% were 75 or older. In the extended adjuvant setting, no overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these older patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
In the adjuvant setting, more than 8,000 postmenopausal women were enrolled in the clinical study. In total, 36 % of patients were aged 65 years or older at enrollment, while 12% were 75 or older. More adverse reactions were generally reported in elderly patients irrespective of study treatment allocation. However, in comparison to tamoxifen, no overall differences with regards to the safety and efficacy profiles were observed between elderly patients and younger patients.
Isolated cases of letrozole overdose have been reported. In these instances, the highest single dose ingested was 62.5 mg or 25 tablets. While no serious adverse reactions were reported in these cases, because of the limited data available, no firm recommendations for treatment can be made. However, emesis could be induced if the patient is alert. In general, supportive care and frequent monitoring of vital signs are also appropriate. In single-dose studies, the highest dose used was 30 mg, which was well tolerated; in multiple-dose trials, the largest dose of 10 mg was well tolerated.
Lethality was observed in mice and rats following single oral doses that were equal to or greater than 2000 mg/kg (about 4,000 to 8,000 times the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis); death was associated with reduced motor activity, ataxia and dyspnea. Lethality was observed in cats following single IV doses that were equal to or greater than 10 mg/kg (about 50 times the daily maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis); death was preceded by depressed blood pressure and arrhythmias.
Letrozole tablets, USP for oral administration contains 2.5 mg of letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (inhibitor of estrogen synthesis). It is chemically described as 4,4′-(1H -1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethylene)dibenzonitrile, and its structural formula is:
Letrozole, USP is a white to off-white powder, freely soluble in dichloromethane, slightly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water. It has a molecular weight of 285.31, molecular formula C17 H11 N5 , and a melting range of 184°C to 185°C.
Letrozole tablets, USP are available as 2.5 mg tablets for oral administration. Each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red No. 27 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake, hypromellose, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized starch (corn), sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
USP Dissolution Test Pending.
The growth of some cancers of the breast is stimulated or maintained by estrogens. Treatment of breast cancer thought to be hormonally responsive (i.e., estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive or receptor unknown) has included a variety of efforts to decrease estrogen levels (ovariectomy, adrenalectomy, hypophysectomy) or inhibit estrogen effects (antiestrogens and progestational agents). These interventions lead to decreased tumor mass or delayed progression of tumor growth in some women.
In postmenopausal women, estrogens are mainly derived from the action of the aromatase enzyme, which converts adrenal androgens (primarily androstenedione and testosterone) to estrone and estradiol. The suppression of estrogen biosynthesis in peripheral tissues and in the cancer tissue itself can therefore be achieved by specifically inhibiting the aromatase enzyme.
Letrozole is a non-steroidal competitive inhibitor of the aromatase enzyme system; it inhibits the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In adult nontumor- and tumor-bearing female animals, letrozole is as effective as ovariectomy in reducing uterine weight, elevating serum LH and causing the regression of estrogen-dependent tumors. In contrast to ovariectomy, treatment with letrozole does not lead to an increase in serum FSH. Letrozole selectively inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis but has no significant effect on adrenal mineralocorticoid or glucocorticoid synthesis.
Letrozole inhibits the aromatase enzyme by competitively binding to the heme of the cytochrome P450 subunit of the enzyme, resulting in a reduction of estrogen biosynthesis in all tissues. Treatment of women with letrozole significantly lowers serum estrone, estradiol and estrone sulfate and has not been shown to significantly affect adrenal corticosteroid synthesis, aldosterone synthesis, or synthesis of thyroid hormones.
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