Levemir

LEVEMIR- insulin detemir injection, solution
Novo Nordisk

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

LEVEMIR is indicated to improve glycemic control in adult and pediatric patients with diabetes mellitus.

Limitations of Use

LEVEMIR is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Important Administration Instructions

Always check insulin labels before administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Visually inspect for particulate matter and discoloration. Only use LEVEMIR if the solution appears clear and colorless.
Inject LEVEMIR subcutaneously into the thigh, upper arm, or abdomen.
Rotate injection sites within the same region from one injection to the next to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy and localized cutaneous amyloidosis. Do not inject into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), Adverse Reactions ( 6)].
During changes to a patient’s insulin regimen, increase the frequency of blood glucose monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Use LEVEMIR FlexTouch with caution in patients with visual impairment who may rely on audible clicks to dial their dose.
Do not dilute or mix LEVEMIR with any other insulin or solution.
Do not administer LEVEMIR intravenously or in an insulin infusion pump.

2.2 General Dosing Instructions

LEVEMIR can be administered by subcutaneous injection once or twice daily. Administer once daily doses with the evening meal or at bedtime. For twice daily dosing, administer the evening dose with the evening meal, at bedtime, or 12 hours after the morning dose.
LEVEMIR FlexTouch dials in 1-unit increments.
Individualize and titrate the dose of LEVEMIR based on the patient’s metabolic needs, blood glucose monitoring results, and glycemic control goal.
Dose adjustments may be needed with changes in physical activity, changes in meal patterns (i.e., macronutrient content or timing of food intake), changes in renal or hepatic function or during acute illness to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
In patients with type 1 diabetes, LEVEMIR must be used in a regimen with rapid-acting or short-acting insulin.

2.3 Starting Dose in Insulin Naïve Patients

The recommended starting dose of LEVEMIR in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is approximately one-third to one-half of the total daily insulin dose. The remainder of the total daily insulin dose should be administered as short-acting pre-meal insulin. As a general rule, 0.2 to 0.4 units of insulin per kilogram of body weight can be used to calculate the initial total daily insulin dose in insulin naïve patients with type 1 diabetes.
The recommended starting dose of LEVEMIR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on oral antidiabetic medications or a GLP-1 receptor agonist is 10 units (or 0.1 units/kg to 0.2 units/kg) given once daily in the evening or divided into a twice daily regimen.

2.4 Starting Dose in Patients Already on Insulin Therapy

If converting from insulin glargine to LEVEMIR, the change can be done on a unit-to-unit basis.
If converting from NPH insulin, the change can be done on a unit-to-unit basis. However, some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may require more LEVEMIR than NPH insulin, as observed in one trial [see Clinical Studies (14)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Injection: 100 unit per mL (U-100), is a clear, colorless, solution available as:

3 mL single-patient-use LEVEMIR FlexTouch prefilled pen
10 mL multiple-dose vial

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

LEVEMIR is contraindicated:

During episodes of hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
In patients with hypersensitivity to LEVEMIR or any of its excipients. Reactions have included anaphylaxis [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Never Share a LEVEMIR FlexTouch Pen, Needle, or Syringe between Patients

LEVEMIR FlexTouch prefilled pens must never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed. Patients using LEVEMIR vials should never share needles or syringes with another person. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.

5.2 Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia with Changes in Insulin Regimen

Changes in an insulin regimen (e.g., insulin strength, manufacturer, type, injection site or method of administration) may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] or hyperglycemia. Repeated insulin injections into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis have been reported to result in hyperglycemia; and a sudden change in the injection site (to an unaffected area) has been reported to result in hypoglycemia [see Adverse Reactions ( 6 )].

Make any changes to a patient’s insulin regimen under close medical supervision with increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Advise patients who have repeatedly injected into areas of lipodystrophy or localized cutaneous amyloidosis to change the injection site to unaffected areas and closely monitor for hypoglycemia. For patients with type 2 diabetes, dosage adjustments of concomitant antidiabetic products may be needed [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

5.3 Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction of insulin, including LEVEMIR [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may be life-threatening or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g., driving or operating other machinery). LEVEMIR, or any insulin, should not be used during episodes of hypoglycemia [see Contraindications (4)].

Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in each individual and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes, in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using medications that block the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., beta-blockers) [see Drug Interactions (7)], or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia.

Risk Factors for Hypoglycemia

The risk of hypoglycemia generally increases with intensity of glycemic control. The risk of hypoglycemia after an injection is related to the duration of action of the insulin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)] and, in general, is highest when the glucose lowering effect of the insulin is maximal. As with all insulin preparations, the glucose lowering effect time course of LEVEMIR may vary among different individuals or at different times in the same individual and depends on many conditions, including the area of injection as well as the injection site blood supply and temperature.

Other factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to co-administered medication [see Drug Interactions (7)]. When a GLP-1 receptor agonist is used in combination with LEVEMIR, the LEVEMIR dose may need to be lowered or more conservatively titrated to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6,8.7)].

Risk Mitigation Strategies for Hypoglycemia

Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.

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