Levetiracetam (Page 10 of 11)

Study 3

Study 3 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted at 47 centers in Europe comparing levetiracetam 3000 mg/day (N=180) and placebo (N=104) in patients with refractory partial onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization, receiving only one concomitant AED. Study drug was given in two divided doses. After a prospective baseline period of 12 weeks, patients were randomized to one of two treatment groups described above. The 16-week treatment period consisted of a 4-week titration period, followed by a 12-week fixed dose evaluation period, during which concomitant AED doses were held constant. The primary measure of effectiveness was a between group comparison of the percent reduction in weekly seizure frequency relative to placebo over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period). Secondary outcome variables included the responder rate (incidence of patients with ≥50% reduction from baseline in partial onset seizure frequency). Table 12 displays the results of the analysis of Study 3.

Table 12: Reduction in Mean Over Placebo in Weekly Frequency of Partial-Onset Seizures in Study 3

Placebo (N=104) Levetiracetam3000 mg/day (N=180)
Percent reduction in partial seizure frequency over placebo23.0%*
Statistically significant versus placebo

The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in partial onset seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the two treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 3

fig 3
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Effectiveness in Partial-Onset Seizures in Pediatric Patients 4 Years to 16 Years of Age

Study 4 was a multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age with partial seizures uncontrolled by standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Study 4 was conducted at 60 sites in North America. The study consisted of an 8-week baseline period and 4-week titration period followed by a 10-week evaluation period. Eligible patients who still experienced, on a stable dose of 1-2 AEDs, at least 4 partial onset seizures during the 4 weeks prior to screening, as well as at least 4 partial-onset seizures in each of the two 4-week baseline periods, were randomized to receive either levetiracetam or placebo. Dosing was initiated at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day in two divided doses. During the treatment period, levetiracetam doses were adjusted in 20 mg/kg/day increments, at 2-week intervals to the target dose of 60 mg/kg/day. The primary measure of efficacy was a between group comparison of the percent reduction in weekly partial seizure frequency relative to placebo over the entire 14-week randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period). Secondary outcome variables included the responder rate (incidence of patients with ≥ 50% reduction from baseline in partial onset seizure frequency per week). The enrolled population included 198 patients (levetiracetam N=101, placebo N=97) with refractory partial-onset seizures, whether or not secondarily generalized. Table 13 displays the results of Study 4.

Table 13: Reduction in Mean Over Placebo in Weekly Frequency of Partial-Onset Seizures in Study 4

Placebo (N=97) Levetiracetam (N=101)
Percent reduction in partial seizure frequency over placebo26.8%*
*Statistically significant versus placebo

The percentage of patients (y-axis) who achieved ≥ 50% reduction in weekly seizure rates from baseline in partial onset seizure frequency over the entire randomized treatment period (titration + evaluation period) within the two treatment groups (x-axis) is presented in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 4

fig 4
(click image for full-size original)

Effectiveness in Partial-Onset Seizures in Pediatric Patients 1 Month to < 4 Years of Age

Study 5 was a multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, in pediatric patients 1 month to less than 4 years of age with partial seizures, uncontrolled by standard epileptic drugs (AEDs). Study 5 was conducted at 62 sites in North America, South America, and Europe. Study 5 consisted of a 5-day evaluation period, which included a 1-day titration period followed by a 4-day maintenance period. Eligible patients who experienced, on a stable dose of 1-2 AEDs, at least 2 partial-onset seizures during the 48-hour baseline video EEG were randomized to receive either levetiracetam or placebo. Randomization was stratified by age range as follows: 1 month to less than 6 months of age (N=4 treated with levetiracetam), 6 months to less than 1 year of age (N=8 treated with levetiracetam), 1 year to less than 2 years of age (N=20 treated with levetiracetam), and 2 years to less than 4 years of age (N=28 treated with levetiracetam). Levetiracetam dosing was determined by age and weight as follows: children 1 month to less than 6 months old were randomized to a target dose of 40 mg/kg/day, and children 6 months to less than 4 years old were randomized to a target dose of 50 mg/kg/day. The primary measure of efficacy was the responder rate (percent of patients with ≥ 50% reduction from baseline in average daily partial onset seizure frequency) assessed by a blinded central reader using a 48-hour video EEG performed during the last two days of the 4-day maintenance period. The enrolled population included 116 patients (levetiracetam N=60, placebo N=56) with refractory partial onset seizures, whether or not secondarily generalized. A total of 109 patients were included in the efficacy analysis. A statistically significant difference between levetiracetam and placebo was observed in Study 5 (see Figure 5). The treatment effect associated with levetiracetam was consistent across age groups.

Figure 5: Responder Rate for All Patients Ages 1 Month to < 4 Years (≥ 50% Reduction from Baseline) in Study 5

fig 5
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14.2 Myoclonic Seizures in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

The effectiveness of levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in patients 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) experiencing myoclonic seizures was established in one multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (study 6), conducted at 37 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients on a stable dose of 1 antiepileptic drug (AED) experiencing one or more myoclonic seizures per day for at least 8 days during the prospective 8-week baseline period were randomized to either levetiracetam or placebo (levetiracetam N=60, placebo N=60). Patients were titrated over 4 weeks to a target dose of 3000 mg/day and treated at a stable dose of 3000mg/day over 12 weeks (evaluation period). Study drug was given in 2 divided doses. The primary measure of efficacy was the proportion of patients with at least 50% reduction in the number of days per week with one or more myoclonic seizures during the treatment period (titration + evaluation periods) as compared to baseline. Table 14 displays the results for the 113 patients with JME in this study.

Table 14: Responder Rate (≥50% Reduction from Baseline) in Myoclonic Seizure Days per Week in Study 6

Placebo (N=59) Levetiracetam (N=54)
Percentage of responders 23.7% 60.4%*
*Statistically significant versus placebo

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