The effect of levetiracetam tablets on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
Levetiracetam is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from levetiracetam tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets in the adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients age 1 month to 16 years old with epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] . The dosing recommendation in these pediatric patients varies according to age group and is weight-based [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive treatment of myoclonic seizures in adolescents 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have been established [ see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The safety and effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy have been established [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].
A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in 98 (levetiracetam tablets N = 64, placebo N = 34) pediatric patients, ages 4 to 16 years old, with partial seizures that were inadequately controlled. The target dose was 60 mg/kg/day . Neurocognitive effects were measured by the Leiter-R Attention and Memory (AM) Battery, which measures various aspects of a child’s memory and attention. Although no substantive differences were observed between the placebo and drug treated groups in the median change from baseline in this battery, the study was not adequate to assess formal statistical non-inferiority of the drug and placebo. The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18), a standardized validated tool used to assess a child’s competencies and behavioral/emotional problems, was also assessed in this study. An analysis of the CBCL/6-18 indicated on average a worsening in levetiracetam tablets-treated patients in aggressive behavior, one of the eight syndrome scores [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Studies of levetiracetam in juvenile rats (dosing from day 4 through day 52 of age) and dogs (dosing from week 3 through week 7 of age) at doses of up to 1800 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 and 24 times, respectively, the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 60 mg/kg/day on a mg/m 2 basis) did not indicate a potential for age-specific toxicity.
There were 347 subjects in clinical studies of levetiracetam tablets that were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. There were insufficient numbers of elderly subjects in controlled trials of epilepsy to adequately assess the effectiveness of levetiracetam tablets in these patients.
Levetiracetam is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Clearance of levetiracetam is decreased in patients with renal impairment and is correlated with creatinine clearance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with impaired renal function and supplemental doses should be given to patients after dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].
The highest known dose of levetiracetam tablets received in the clinical development program was 6000 mg/day. Other than drowsiness, there were no adverse reactions in the few known cases of overdose in clinical trials. Cases of somnolence, agitation, aggression, depressed level of consciousness, respiratory depression and coma were observed with levetiracetam tablets overdoses in postmarketing use.
There is no specific antidote for overdose with levetiracetam tablets. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be attempted by emesis or gastric lavage; usual precautions should be observed to maintain airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the patient’s clinical status. A Certified Poison Control Center should be contacted for up to date information on the management of overdose with levetiracetam tablets.
Standard hemodialysis procedures result in significant clearance of levetiracetam (approximately 50% in 4 hours) and should be considered in cases of overdose. Although hemodialysis has not been performed in the few known cases of overdose, it may be indicated by the patient’s clinical state or in patients with significant renal impairment.
Levetiracetam is an antiepileptic drug available as 250 mg (white), 500 mg (white), 750 mg (white) or 1000 mg (white) tablets for oral administration.
The chemical name of levetiracetam, a single enantiomer, is (-)-( S)-α-Ethyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide, its molecular formula is C 8 H 14 N 2 O 2 and its molecular weight is 170.21. Levetiracetam is chemically unrelated to existing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). It has the following structural formula:
Levetiracetam, USP is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a faint odor and a bitter taste. It is very soluble in water (104.0 g/100 mL). It is freely soluble in chloroform (65.3 g/100 mL) and in methanol (53.6 g/100 mL), soluble in ethanol (16.5 g/100 mL), sparingly soluble in acetonitrile (5.7 g/100 mL) and practically insoluble in n-hexane. (Solubility limits are expressed as g/100 mL solvent.)
Levetiracetam tablets, USP contain the labeled amount of levetiracetam. Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
Levetiracetam Tablets USP, 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg and 1000 mg Meet USP Dissolution Test 2.
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