The overall adverse experience profile of levetiracetam was similar between females and males. There are insufficient data to support a statement regarding the distribution of adverse experience reports by age and race.
The following adverse events have been identified during postapproval use of levetiracetam. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a casual relationship to drug exposure.
In addition to the adverse experiences listed above, the following have been reported in patients receiving marketed levetiracetam worldwide. The listing is alphabetized: abnormal liver function test, hepatic failure, hepatitis, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancreatitis, pancytopenia (with bone marrow suppression identified in some of these cases), thrombocytopenia, and weight loss. Alopecia has been reported with levetiracetam use; recovery was observed in majority of cases where levetiracetam was discontinued. These adverse experiences have not been listed above, and data are insufficient to support an estimate of their incidence or to establish causation.
The abuse and dependence potential of levetiracetam has not been evaluated in human studies.
The highest known dose of levetiracetam received in the clinical development program was 6000 mg/day. Other than drowsiness, there were no adverse events in the few known cases of overdose in clinical trials. Cases of somnolence, agitation, aggression, depressed level of consciousness, respiratory depression and coma were observed with levetiracetam overdoses in postmarketing use.
There is no specific antidote for overdose with levetiracetam. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be attempted by emesis or gastric lavage; usual precautions should be observed to maintain airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the patient’s clinical status. A Certified Poison Control Center should be contacted for up to date information on the management of overdose with levetiracetam.
Standard hemodialysis procedures result in significant clearance of levetiracetam (approximately 50% in 4 hours) and should be considered in cases of overdose. Although hemodialysis has not been performed in the few known cases of overdose, it may be indicated by the patient’s clinical state or in patients with significant renal impairment.
Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.
Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of myoclonic seizures in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children 6 years of age and older with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.
Adults 16 Years And Older
In clinical trials, daily doses of 1000 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg, given as twice-daily dosing, were shown to be effective. Although in some studies there was a tendency toward greater response with higher dose (see CLINICAL STUDIES), a consistent increase in response with increased dose has not been shown.
Treatment should be initiated with a daily dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg BID). Additional dosing increments may be given (1000 mg/day additional every 2 weeks) to a maximum recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. Doses greater than 3000 mg/day have been used in open-label studies for periods of 6 months and longer. There is no evidence that doses greater than 3000 mg/day confer additional benefit.
Pediatric Patients Ages 4 To <16 Years
Treatment should be initiated with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg BID). The daily dose should be increased every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg BID). If a patient cannot tolerate a daily dose of 60 mg/kg, the daily dose may be reduced. In the clinical trial, the mean daily dose was 52 mg/kg. Patients with body weight < 20 kg should be dosed with oral solution. Patients with body weight above 20 kg can be dosed with either tablets or oral solution. Table 15 below provides a guideline for tablet dosing based on weight during titration to 60 mg/kg/day. Only whole tablets should be administered.
Levetiracetam is given orally with or without food.
|Patient Weight||20 mg/kg/day(BID dosing)||40 mg/kg/day(BID dosing)||60 mg/kg/day(BID dosing)|
|20.1 to 40 kg||500 mg/day(1 x 250 mgtablet BID)||1000 mg/day(1 x 500 mgtablet BID)||1500 mg/day(1 x 750 mgtablet BID)|
|>40 kg||1000 mg/day(1 x 500 mgtablet BID)||2000 mg/day(2 x 500 mgtablets BID)||3000 mg/day(2 x 750 mgtablets BID)|
The following calculation should be used to determine the appropriate daily dose of oral solution for pediatric patients based on a daily dose of 20 mg/kg/day, 40 mg/kg/day or 60 mg/kg/day:
Daily dose (mg/kg/day) x patient weight (kg)
Total daily dose (mL/day) = ———————————————————–
A household teaspoon or tablespoon is not an adequate measuring device. It is recommended that a calibrated measuring device be obtained and used. Healthcare providers should recommend a device that can measure and deliver the prescribed dose accurately, and provide instructions for measuring the dosage.
Myoclonic Seizures In Patients 12 Years Of Age And Older With Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg BID). Dosage should be increased by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been studied.
Adults 16 Years And Older
Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 1000 mg/day, given as twice-daily dosing (500 mg BID). Dosage should be increased by 1000 mg/day every 2 weeks to the recommended daily dose of 3000 mg. The effectiveness of doses lower than 3000 mg/day has not been adequately studied.
Pediatric Patients Ages 6 To <16 Years
Treatment should be initiated with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg in 2 divided doses (10 mg/kg BID). The daily dose should be increased every 2 weeks by increments of 20 mg/kg to the recommended daily dose of 60 mg/kg (30 mg/kg BID). The effectiveness of doses lower than 60 mg/kg/day has not been adequately studied. Patients with body weight ≤ 20 kg should be dosed with oral solution. Patients with body weight above 20 kg can be dosed with either tablets or oral solution. See Table 15 for tablet dosing based on weight during titration to 60 mg/kg/day. Only whole tablets should be administered.
Levetiracetam dosing must be individualized according to the patient’s renal function status. Recommended doses and adjustment for dose for adults are shown in Table 16. To use this dosing table, an estimate of the patient’s creatinine clearance (CLcr) in mL/min is needed. CLcr in mL/min may be estimated from serum creatinine (mg/dL) determination using the following formula:
[140-age (years)] x weight (kg)
CLcr = ——————————————— (x 0.85 for female patients)
72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)
|Normal||> 80||500 to 1,500||Every 12 h|
|Mild||50 to 80||500 to 1,000||Every 12 h|
|Moderate||30 to 50||250 to 750||Every 12 h|
|Severe||< 30||250 to 500||Every 12 h|
|ESRD patients using dialysis||–||500 to 1,000||Every 24 h *|
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