Levetiracetam dosing must be individualized according to the patient’s renal function status. Recommended dosage adjustments for adults with renal impairment are shown in Table 2. Information is unavailable for dosage adjustments in pediatric patients with renal impairment. In order to calculate the dose recommended for adult patients with renal impairment, creatinine clearance adjusted for body surface area must be calculated. To do this an estimate of the patient’s creatinine clearance (CLcr) in mL/min must first be calculated using the following formula:
|CLcr=||[140-age (years)] × weight (kg)||(× 0.85 for female patients)|
|72 × serum creatinine (mg/dL)|
Then CLcr is adjusted for body surface area (BSA) as follows:
|CLcr (mL/min/1.73m 2)=||CLcr (mL/min)||× 1.73|
|BSA subject (m 2)|
|Group||Creatinine Clearance (mL/min/1.73m 2)||Dosage (mg)||Frequency|
|Normal||> 80||500 to 1,500||Every 12 hours|
|Mild||50 – 80||500 to 1,000||Every 12 hours|
|Moderate||30 – 50||250 to 750||Every 12 hours|
|Severe||< 30||250 to 500||Every 12 hours|
|ESRD patients using dialysis||——-||500 to 1,000 *||Every 24 hours *|
One vial of levetiracetam injection contains 500 mg levetiracetam (500 mg/5 mL).
Levetiracetam is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to levetiracetam . Reactions have included anaphylaxis and angioedema [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] .
Levetiracetam may cause behavioral abnormalities and psychotic symptoms. Patients treated with levetiracetam should be monitored for psychiatric signs and symptoms.
In clinical studies using an oral formulation of levetiracetam, 13% of adult levetiracetam-treated patients and 38% of pediatric levetiracetam-treated patients (4 to 16 years of age), compared to 6% and 19% of adult and pediatric placebo-treated patients, experienced non-psychotic behavioral symptoms (reported as aggression, agitation, anger, anxiety, apathy, depersonalization, depression, emotional lability, hostility, hyperkinesias, irritability, nervousness, neurosis, and personality disorder).
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of an oral formulation of levetiracetam as adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients (4 to 16 years of age). The results from an exploratory analysis indicated a worsening in levetiracetam-treated patients on aggressive behavior (one of eight behavior dimensions), as measured in a standardized and systematic way using a validated instrument, the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18).
In clinical studies in pediatric patients 1 month to < 4 years of age, irritability was reported in 12% of the levetiracetam-treated patients compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients. In clinical studies, 1.7% of adult levetiracetam-treated patients discontinued treatment due to behavioral adverse reactions, compared to 0.2% of placebo patients. The treatment dose was reduced in 0.8% of adult levetiracetam-treated patients and in 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. Overall, 11% of levetiracetam-treated pediatric patients experienced behavioral symptoms associated with discontinuation or dose reduction, compared to 6% of placebo-treated patients.
In clinical studies using an oral formulation of levetiracetam, 1% of levetiracetam-treated adult patients, 2% of levetiracetam-treated pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age, and 17% of levetiracetam-treated pediatric patients 1 month to <4 years of age experienced psychotic symptoms, compared to 0.2%, 2%, and 5% in the corresponding age groups treated with placebo. In a controlled study that assessed the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of an oral formulation oflevetiracetam in pediatric patients 4 to 16 years of age, 1.6% of levetiracetam-treated patients experienced paranoia, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients. In the same study, 3.1% of levetiracetam-treated patients experienced confusional state, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ].
In clinical studies, two (0.3%) levetiracetam-treated adult patients were hospitalized, and their treatment was discontinued due to psychosis. Both events, reported as psychosis, developed within the first week of treatment and resolved within 1 to 2 weeks following treatment discontinuation. There was no difference between drug- and placebo-treated patients in the incidence of the pediatric patients who discontinued treatment due to psychotic and non-psychotic adverse reactions.
Levetiracetam may cause somnolence and fatigue. Patients should be monitored for somnolence and fatigue, and be advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on levetiracetam to gauge whether it adversely affects their ability to drive or operate machinery.
In controlled clinical studies using an oral formulation of levetiracetam in adult patients with partial onset seizures, 15% of levetiracetam-treated patients reported somnolence, compared to 8% of placebo-treated patients. There was no clear dose response up to 3,000 mg/day. In a study in which there was no titration, about 45% of patients receiving levetiracetam 4,000 mg/day reported somnolence. The somnolence was considered serious in 0.3% of levetiracetam-treated patients, compared to 0% in the placebo group. About 3% of levetiracetam-treated patients discontinued treatment due to somnolence, compared to 0.7% of placebo-treated patients. In 1.4% of levetiracetam-treated patients and 0.9% of placebo-treated patients, the dose was reduced, while 0.3% of the levetiracetam-treated patients were hospitalized due to somnolence.
In controlled clinical studies using an oral formulation of levetiracetam in adult patients with partial onset seizures, 15% of levetiracetam-treated patients reported asthenia, compared to 9% of placebo-treated patients. Treatment was discontinued due to asthenia in 0.8% of levetiracetam-treated patients as compared to 0.5% of placebo-treated patients. In 0.5% of levetiracetam-treated patients and in 0.2% of placebo-treated patients, the dose was reduced due to asthenia.
Somnolence and asthenia occurred most frequently within the first 4 weeks of treatment. In general, the incidences of somnolence and fatigue in the pediatric partial onset seizure studies, and in pediatric and adult myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic studies were comparable to those of the adult partial onset seizure studies.
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