Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride (Page 3 of 7)

8.4 Pediatric Use

The recommended dose of levocetirizine dihydrochloride for the treatment of the uncomplicated skin manifestations of chronic idiopathic urticaria in patients 6 months to 17 years of age is based on extrapolation of efficacy from adults 18 years of age and older [see Clinical Studies ( 14) ].

The recommended dose of levocetirizine dihydrochloride in patients 6 months to 2 years of age for the treatment of the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis and 6 months to 11 years of age with chronic idiopathic urticaria is based on cross-study comparisons of the systemic exposure of levocetirizine dihydrochloride in adults and pediatric patients and on the safety profile of levocetirizine dihydrochloride in both adult and pediatric patients at doses equal to or higher than the recommended dose for patients 6 months to 11 years of age.

The safety of levocetirizine dihydrochloride 5 mg once daily was evaluated in 243 pediatric patients 6 to 12 years of age in two placebo-controlled clinical trials lasting 4 and 6 weeks. The safety of levocetirizine dihydrochloride 1.25 mg twice daily was evaluated in one 2-week clinical trial in 114 pediatric patients 1 to 5 years of age and the safety of levocetirizine dihydrochloride 1.25 mg once daily was evaluated in one 2-week clinical trial in 45 pediatric patients 6 to 11 months of age [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1) ].

The effectiveness of levocetirizine dihydrochloride 1.25 mg once daily (6 months to 5 years of age) and 2.5 mg once daily (6 to 11 years of age) for the treatment of the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria is supported by the extrapolation of demonstrated efficacy of levocetirizine dihydrochloride 5 mg once daily in patients 12 years of age and older based on the pharmacokinetic comparison between adults and children.

Cross-study comparisons indicate that administration of a 5 mg dose of levocetirizine dihydrochloride to 6 to 12 year old pediatric patients resulted in about 2-fold the systemic exposure (AUC) observed when 5 mg of levocetirizine dihydrochloride was administered to healthy adults. Therefore, in children 6 to 11 years of age the recommended dose of 2.5 mg once daily should not be exceeded. In a population pharmacokinetics study the administration of 1.25 mg once daily in children 6 months to 5 years of age resulted in systemic exposure comparable to 5 mg once daily in adults. [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2), Clinical Studies ( 14), and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of levocetirizine dihydrochloride for each approved indication did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Renal Impairment

Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to be substantially excreted by the kidneys and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Dosage and Administration ( 2) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

As levocetirizine is mainly excreted unchanged by the kidneys, it is unlikely that the clearance of levocetirizine is significantly decreased in patients with solely hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Overdosage has been reported with levocetirizine dihydrochloride.

Symptoms of overdose may include drowsiness in adults. In children agitation and restlessness may initially occur, followed by drowsiness. There is no known specific antidote to levocetirizine dihydrochloride. Should overdose occur, symptomatic or supportive treatment is recommended. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is not effectively removed by dialysis, and dialysis will be ineffective unless a dialyzable agent has been concomitantly ingested.

The acute maximal non-lethal oral dose of levocetirizine was 240 mg/kg in mice (approximately 190 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults, approximately 230 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in children 6 to 11 years of age, and approximately 180 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in children 6 months to 5 years of age on a mg/m 2 basis). In rats the maximal non-lethal oral dose was 240 mg/kg (approximately 390 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults, approximately 460 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in children 6 to 11 years of age, and approximately 370 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in children 6 months to 5 years of age on a mg/m 2 basis).

11 DESCRIPTION

Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, the active component of levocetirizine dihydrochloride tablet USP, is an orally active H 1 -receptor antagonist. The chemical name is (R)-[2-[4-[(4-chlorophenyl) phenylmethyl]-1-piperazinyl] ethoxy] acetic acid dihydrochloride. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is the R enantiomer of cetirizine hydrochloride, a racemic compound with antihistaminic properties. The molecular formula of levocetirizine dihydrochloride is C 21 H 25 ClN 2 O 3 •2HCl. The molecular weight is 461.82 and the chemical structure is shown below:

structure
(click image for full-size original)

Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is a white to off white powder and is freely soluble in water and in methanol.

Levocetirizine dihydrochloride tablets USP, 5 mg are formulated as immediate release, white to off white, oval shaped biconvex, film-coated tablet for oral administration. The tablets are debossed with ‘I’ and ’12’ on one side and score line on the other side. Inactive ingredients are: microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate. The film coating contains hypromellose, titanium dioxide, and polyethylene glycol.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Levocetirizine, the active enantiomer of cetirizine, is an antihistamine; its principal effects are mediated via selective inhibition of H 1 receptors. The antihistaminic activity of levocetirizine has been documented in a variety of animal and human models. In vitro binding studies revealed that levocetirizine has an affinity for the human H 1 -receptor 2-fold higher than that of cetirizine (Ki = 3 nmol/L vs. 6 nmol/L, respectively). The clinical relevance of this finding is unknown.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Studies in adult healthy subjects showed that levocetirizine at doses of 2.5 mg and 5 mg inhibited the skin wheal and flare caused by the intradermal injection of histamine. In contrast, dextrocetirizine exhibited no clear change in the inhibition of the wheal and flare reaction. Levocetirizine at a dose of 5 mg inhibited the wheal and flare caused by intradermal injection of histamine in 14 pediatric subjects (aged 6 to 11 years) and the activity persisted for at least 24 hours. The clinical relevance of histamine wheal skin testing is unknown. A QT/QTc study using a single dose of 30 mg of levocetirizine did not demonstrate an effect on the QTc interval. While a single dose of levocetirizine had no effect, the effects of levocetirizine may not be at steady state following single dose. The effect of levocetirizine on the QTc interval following multiple dose administration is unknown. Levocetirizine is not expected to have QT/QTc effects because of the results of QTc studies with cetirizine and the long postmarketing history of cetirizine without reports of QT prolongation.

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