Levofloxacin (Page 2 of 16)

1.8 Plague

Levofloxacin is indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older. Efficacy studies of levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.1, 2.2) and CLINICAL STUDIES (14.10)].

1.9 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 5-day Treatment Regimen

Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Proteus mirabilis [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.7)].

1.10 Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 10-day Treatment Regimen

Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Enterococcus faecalis , Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.8)].

1.11 Acute Pyelonephritis: 5 or 10-day Treatment Regimen

Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli , including cases with concurrent bacteremia [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.7, 14.8)].

1.12 Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections

Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

Because fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1-5.15)] and for some patients uncomplicated urinary tract infection is self-limiting, reserve levofloxacin for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.13 Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis

Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) due to methicillin‑susceptible Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.

Because fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1-5.15)]and for some patients ABECB is self-limiting, reserve levofloxacin for treatment of ABECB in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.14 Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10–14 day Treatment Regimens

Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.4)].

Because fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1-5.15)] and for some patients ABS is self-limiting, reserve levofloxacin for treatment of ABS in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.15 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of levofloxacin and other antibacterial drugs, levofloxacin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Culture and susceptibility testing Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing the infection and to determine their susceptibility to levofloxacin [see MICROBIOLOGY (12.4)]. Therapy with levofloxacin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be selected.

As with other drugs in this class, some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with levofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information about the continued susceptibility of the pathogens to the antimicrobial agent and also the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function

The usual dose of levofloxacin injection is 250 mg or 500 mg administered by slow infusion over 60 minutes every 24 hours or 750 mg administered by slow infusion over 90 minutes every 24 hours, as indicated by infection and described in Table 1.

These recommendations apply to patients with creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min. For patients with creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min, adjustments to the dosing regimen are required [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.3)].

Table 1: Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function (creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min)

Type of Infection1

Dosed Every 24 hours

Duration(days)2

Nosocomial Pneumonia

750 mg

7–14

Community Acquired Pneumonia3

500 mg

7–14

Community Acquired Pneumonia4

750 mg

5

Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections (SSSI)

750 mg

7–14

Uncomplicated SSSI

500 mg

7–10

Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

500 mg

28

Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure), adult and pediatric patients > 50 kg 7,8 Pediatric patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age 7,8

500 mgsee Table 2 below (2.2)

60 8 60 8

Plague, adult and pediatric patients > 50 kg 9 Pediatric patients < 50 kg and ≥ 6 months of age

500 mgsee Table 2 below (2.2)

10 to 1410 to 14
Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (cUTI) or Acute Pyelonephritis (AP)5 750 mg 5
Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (cUTI) or Acute Pyelonephritis (AP)6 250 mg 10
Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection 250 mg 3
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) 500 mg 7
Acute Bacterial Sinusitis 750 mg 5
500 mg 10-14

1 Due to the designated pathogens [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE (1)].
2 Sequential therapy (intravenous to oral) may be instituted at the discretion of the physician.
3 Due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug-resistant isolates [MDRSP]), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE (1.2)].
4 Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (excluding multi-drug-resistant isolates [MDRSP]), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila pneumoniae [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE (1.3)].
5 This regimen is indicated for cUTI due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and AP due to E. coli, including cases with concurrent bacteremia.
6 This regimen is indicated for cUTI due to Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus cloacae, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ; and for AP due to E. coli.
7 Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis. This indication is based on a surrogate endpoint. Levofloxacin plasma concentrations achieved in humans are reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14.9)].
8 The safety of levofloxacin in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days or in pediatric patients for durations beyond 14 days has not been studied. An increased incidence of musculoskeletal adverse events compared to controls has been observed in pediatric patients [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.11); USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS (8.4); and CLINICAL STUDIES (14.9)] Prolonged levofloxacin therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.9 Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to Yersinia pestis. Higher doses of levofloxacin typically used for treatment of pneumonia can be used for treatment of plague, if clinically indicated.

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