Levofloxacin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) using either 750 mg by mouth × 5 days or 500 mg by mouth once daily × 10–14 days. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high dose short course of levofloxacin, 780 outpatient adults with clinically and radiologically determined acute bacterial sinusitis were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing levofloxacin 750 mg by mouth once daily for five days to levofloxacin 500 mg by mouth once daily for 10 days. Clinical success rates (defined as complete or partial resolution of the pre-treatment signs and symptoms of ABS to such an extent that no further antibiotic treatment was deemed necessary) in the microbiologically evaluable population were 91.4% (139/152) in the levofloxacin 750 mg group and 88.6% (132/149) in the levofloxacin 500 mg group at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (95% CI [-4.2, 10.0] for levofloxacin 750 mg minus levofloxacin 500 mg).
Rates of clinical success by pathogen in the microbiologically evaluable population who had specimens obtained by antral tap at study entry showed comparable results for the five- and ten-day regimens at the test-of-cure visit 22 days post treatment (see Table 16).
|Table 16: Clinical Success Rate by Pathogen at the TOC in Microbiologically Evaluable Subjects Who Underwent Antral Puncture (Acute Bacterial Sinusitis)Table 16: Clinical Success Rate by Pathogen at the TOC in Microbiologically Evaluable Subjects Who Underwent Antral Puncture (Acute Bacterial Sinusitis)|
|PathogenPathogen||Levofloxacin 750 mg×5 days Levofloxacin 750 mg×5 days||Levofloxacin 500 mg × 10 days Levofloxacin 500 mg × 10 days|
|Table 16: Clinical Success Rate by Pathogen at the TOC in Microbiologically Evaluable Subjects Who Underwent Antral Puncture (Acute Bacterial Sinusitis)|
|Pathogen||Levofloxacin 750 mg×5 days||Levofloxacin 500 mg × 10 days|
|Streptococcus pneumoniae *||25/27 (92.6%)||26/27 (96.3%)|
|Haemophilus influenzae *||19/21 (90.5%)||25/27 (92.6%)|
|Moraxella catarrhalis *||10/11 (90.9%)||13/13 (100%)|
14.5 Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Three hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, comparative study for complicated skin and skin structure infections. The patients were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (IV followed by oral), or an approved comparator for a median of 10 ± 4.7 days. As is expected in complicated skin and skin structure infections, surgical procedures were performed in the levofloxacin and comparator groups. Surgery (incision and drainage or debridement) was performed on 45% of the levofloxacin-treated patients and 44% of the comparator treated patients, either shortly before or during antibiotic treatment and formed an integral part of therapy for this indication.
Among those who could be evaluated clinically 2–5 days after completion of study drug, overall success rates (improved or cured) were 116/138 (84.1%) for patients treated with levofloxacin and 106/132 (80.3%) for patients treated with the comparator.
Success rates varied with the type of diagnosis ranging from 68% in patients with infected ulcers to 90% in patients with infected wounds and abscesses. These rates were equivalent to those seen with comparator drugs.
Adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of prostatitis and microbiological culture results from urine sample collected after prostatic massage (VB 3) or expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) specimens obtained via the Meares-Stamey procedure were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing oral levofloxacin 500 mg, once daily for a total of 28 days to oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg, twice daily for a total of 28 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiologic efficacy in microbiologically evaluable patients. A total of 136 and 125 microbiologically evaluable patients were enrolled in the levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin groups, respectively. The microbiologic eradication rate by patient infection at 5–18 days after completion of therapy was 75.0% in the levofloxacin group and 76.8% in the ciprofloxacin group (95% CI [-12.58, 8.98] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). The overall eradication rates for pathogens of interest are presented in Table 17. Table 17: Bacteriological Eradication Rates (Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis)
|Levofloxacin (N=136)||Ciprofloxacin (N=125)|
|E. coli||15||14 (93.3%)||11||9 (81.8%)|
|E. faecalis||54||39 (72.2%)||44||33 (75.0%)|
|S. epidermidis *||11||9 (81.8%)||14||11 (78.6%)|
Eradication rates for S. epidermidis when found with other co-pathogens are consistent with rates seen in pure isolates.
Clinical success (cure + improvement with no need for further antibiotic therapy) rates in microbiologically evaluable population 5–18 days after completion of therapy were 75.0% for levofloxacin-treated patients and 72.8% for ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-8.87, 13.27] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). Clinical long-term success (24–45 days after completion of therapy) rates were 66.7% for the levofloxacin-treated patients and 76.9% for the ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-23.40, 2.89] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin).
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the higher dose and shorter course of levofloxacin, 1109 patients with cUTI and AP were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial conducted in the US from November 2004 to April 2006 comparing levofloxacin 750 mg IV or orally once daily for 5 days (546 patients) with ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV or 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days (563 patients). Patients with AP complicated by underlying renal diseases or conditions such as complete obstruction, surgery, transplantation, concurrent infection or congenital malformation were excluded. Efficacy was measured by bacteriologic eradication of the baseline organism(s) at the post-therapy visit in patients with a pathogen identified at baseline. The post-therapy (test-of-cure) visit occurred 10 to 14 days after the last active dose of levofloxacin and 5 to 9 days after the last dose of active ciprofloxacin.
The bacteriologic cure rates overall for levofloxacin and control at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit for the group of all patients with a documented pathogen at baseline (modified intent to treat or mITT) and the group of patients in the mITT population who closely followed the protocol (Microbiologically Evaluable) are summarized in Table 18. Table 18: Bacteriological Eradication at Test-of-Cure
|Levofloxacin 750 mg orally or IV once daily for 5 days||Ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV/500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days||Overall Difference [95% CI]|
|mITT Population *|
|Overall (cUTI or AP)||252/333||75.7||239/318||75.2||0.5 (-6.1, 7.1)|
|Microbiologically Evaluable Population †|
|Overall (cUTI or AP)||228/265||86.0||215/241||89.2||-3.2 [-8.9, 2.5]|
Microbiologic eradication rates in the Microbiologically Evaluable population at TOC for individual pathogens recovered from patients randomized to levofloxacin treatment are presented in Table 19.
|Pathogen||Bacteriological Eradication Rate (n/N)||%|
|Escherichia coli *||155/172||90|
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