Levofloxacin (Page 10 of 17)

12.4 Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.

Mechanism of Resistance

Fluoroquinolone resistance can arise through mutations in defined regions of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV, termed the Quinolone-Resistance Determining Regions (QRDRs), or through altered efflux.

Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, differ in chemical structure and mode of action from aminoglycosides, macrolides and β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins. Fluoroquinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to these antimicrobials.

Resistance to levofloxacin due to spontaneous mutation in vitro is a rare occurrence (range: 10-9 to 10-10). Cross-resistance has been observed between levofloxacin and some other fluoroquinolones, some microorganisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones may be susceptible to levofloxacin.

Activity in vitro and in vivo

Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Levofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in INDICATIONS AND USAGE (1):

Gram-Positive Bacteria

Enterococcusfaecalis
Staphylococcus aureus
(methicillin-susceptible isolates)
Staphylococcus epidermidis
(methicillin-susceptible isolates)
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
(including multi-drug resistant isolates [MDRSP])1
Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-NegativeBacteria

Enterobacter cloacae
Escherichia coli
Haemophilusinfluenzae
Haemophilusparainfluenzae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila
Moraxella catarrhalis
Proteus mirabilis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Serratia marcescens

1 MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae) isolates are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime; macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

Other Bacteria

Chlamydophila pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown: Levofloxacin exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values) of 2 mcg/mL or less against most (≥90%) isolates of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of levofloxacin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-Positive Bacteria

Staphylococcus haemolyticus
β-hemolytic Streptococcus (Group C/F)
β-hemolytic Streptococcus (Group G)
Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus milleri
Viridans group streptococci
Bacillus anthracis

Gram-Negative Bacteria

Acinetobacterbaumannii
Acinetobacterlwoffii
Bordetella pertussis
Citrobacterkoseri
Citrobacterfreundii
Enterobacteraerogenes
Enterobactersakazakii
Klebsiellaoxytoca
Morganella morganii
Pantoea agglomerans
Proteus vulgaris
Providencia rettgeri
Providencia stuartii
Pseudomonas fluorescens
Yersinia pestis

Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacteria

Clostridium perfringens

Susceptibility Tests

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in the resident hospitals to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug product for treatment.

Dilution techniques:
Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MIC values should be determined using a standardized procedure.
Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method1,2,4 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of levofloxacin powder. The MIC values should be interpreted according to the criteria outlined in Table 9.
Diffusion techniques:
Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2,3 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5 mcg levofloxacin to test the susceptibility of bacteria to levofloxacin.

Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 5 mcg levofloxacin disk should be interpreted according to the criteria outlined in Table 9.

Table 9: Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Levofloxacin

*
The current absence of data on resistant isolates precludes defining any categories other than “Susceptible.” Isolates yielding MIC/zone diameter results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing.

Minimum Inhibitory

Concentrations (mcg/mL)

Disk Diffusion

(zone diameter in mm)

Pathogen

S

I

R

S

I

R

Enterobacteriaceae

≤2

4

≥8

≥17

14 to 16

≤13

Enterococcus faecalis

≤2

4

≥8

≥17

14 to 16

≤13

Staphylococcus species

≤2

4

≥8

≥17

14 to 16

≤13

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

≤2

4

≥8

≥17

14 to 16

≤13

Haemophilusinfluenzae

≤2

*

≥17

Haemophilusparainfluenzae

≤2

≥17

Streptococcus pneumoniae

≤2

4

≥8

≥17

14 to 16

≤13

Streptococcus pyogenes

≤2

4

≥8

≥17

14 to 16

≤13

Yersinia pestis4

≤0.25

Bacillus anthracis4

≤0.25

S = Susceptible, I = Intermediate, R = Resistant

A report of Susceptible indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of Intermediate indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of Resistant indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.

Quality Control:

Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test.1,2,3,4 Standard levofloxacin powder should provide the range of MIC values noted in Table 10. For the diffusion technique using the 5 mcg disk, the criteria in Table 10 should be achieved.

Table 10: Quality Control Ranges for Susceptibility Testing

Microorganism

Microorganism QC Number

MIC (mcg/mL)

Disk Diffusion (zone diameter in mm)

Enterococcus faecalis

ATCC 29212

0.25 to 2

Escherichia coli

ATCC 25922

0.008 to 0.06

29 to 37

Escherichia coli

ATCC 35218

0.015 to 0.06

Haemophilusinfluenzae

ATCC 49247

0.008 to 0.03

32 to 40

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

ATCC 27853

0.5 to 4

19 to 26

Staphylococcus aureus

ATCC 29213

0.06 to 0.5

Staphylococcus aureus

ATCC 25923

25 to 30

Streptococcus pneumoniae

ATCC 49619

0.5 to 2

20 to 25

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