Mechanism of Action
Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.
Fluoroquinolone resistance can arise through mutations in defined regions of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV, termed the Quinolone-Resistance Determining Regions (QRDRs), or through altered efflux.
Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, differ in chemical structure and mode of action from aminoglycosides, macrolides and ⛚-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins. Fluoroquinolones may, therefore, be active against bacteria resistant to these antimicrobials.
Resistance to levofloxacin due to spontaneous mutation in vitro is a rare occurrence (range: 10-9 to 10-10). Cross-resistance has been observed between levofloxacin and some other fluoroquinolones, some microorganisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones may be susceptible to levofloxacin.
Antimicrobial Activity Levofloxacin has in vitro activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
Levofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in Indications and Usage (1):
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates)
Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible isolates)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant isolates [MDRSP]1)
1 MDRSP (Multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae) isolates are isolates resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥2 mcg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefuroxime; macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for levofloxacin against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However, efficacy of levofloxacin in treating clinical infections caused by these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
β-hemolytic Streptococcus (Group C/F)
β — hemolytic Streptococcus (Group G)
Viridans group streptococci
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
In a lifetime bioassay in rats, levofloxacin exhibited no carcinogenic potential following daily dietary administration for 2 years; the highest dose (100 mg/kg/day) was 1.4 times the Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD) (750 mg) after normalization for total body surface area. Levofloxacin did not shorten the time to tumor development of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless albino (Skh-1) mice at any levofloxacin dose level and was therefore not photo-carcinogenic under conditions of this study. Dermal levofloxacin concentrations in the hairless mice ranged from 25 to 42 mcg/g at the highest levofloxacin dose level (300 mg/kg/day) used in the photo-carcinogenicity study. By comparison, dermal levofloxacin concentrations in human subjects receiving 750 mg of levofloxacin averaged approximately 11.8 mcg/g at Cmax .
Levofloxacin was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames bacterial mutation assay (S. typhimurium and E. coli) , CHO/HGPRT forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, mouse dominant lethal test, rat unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and the mouse sister chromatid exchange assay. It was positive in the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CHL cell line) and sister chromatid exchange (CHL/IU cell line) assays.
Levofloxacin caused no impairment of fertility or reproductive performance in rats at oral doses as high as 360 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 4.2 times the MRHD and intravenous doses as high as 100 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 1.2 times the MRHD after normalization for total body surface area.
Levofloxacin and other quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most species tested [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. In immature dogs (4–5 months old), oral doses of 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg/day for 14 days of levofloxacin resulted in arthropathic lesions. Administration at oral doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 60 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks produced arthropathy in juvenile rats. Three-month old beagle dogs dosed orally with levofloxacin at 40 mg/kg/day exhibited clinically severe arthrotoxicity resulting in the termination of dosing at Day 8 of a 14-day dosing routine (dosing was terminated in the low and mid-dose groups on Day 9 due to similar findings at the mid-dose). Slight musculoskeletal clinical effects, in the absence of gross pathological or histopathological effects, resulted from the lowest dose level of 2.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2-fold the pediatric dose based upon AUC comparisons). Synovitis and articular cartilage lesions were observed at the 10 and 40 mg/kg dose levels (approximately 0.7-fold and 2.4-fold the pediatric dose, respectively, based on AUC comparisons). Articular cartilage gross pathology and histopathology persisted to the end of the 18-week recovery period for those dogs from the 10 and 40 mg/kg/day dose levels. The low and mid-dose groups in that study were also evaluated by electron microscopy, revealing compound-related ultrastructural effects in articular cartilage chondrocytes at the end of treatment and at the end of recovery in both of those doses.
When tested in a mouse ear swelling bioassay, levofloxacin exhibited phototoxicity similar in magnitude to ofloxacin, but less phototoxicity than other quinolones.
While crystalluria has been observed in some intravenous rat studies, urinary crystals are not formed in the bladder, being present only after micturition and are not associated with nephrotoxicity.
In mice, the CNS stimulatory effect of quinolones is enhanced by concomitant administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
In dogs, levofloxacin administered at 6 mg/kg or higher by rapid intravenous injection produced hypotensive effects. These effects were considered to be related to histamine release. In vitro and in vivo studies in animals indicate that levofloxacin is neither an enzyme inducer nor inhibitor in the human therapeutic plasma concentration range; therefore, no drug metabolizing enzyme-related interactions with other drugs or agents are anticipated.
Adult patients with clinically and radiologically documented nosocomial pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) followed by oral levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) for a total of 7–15 days to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (500–1000 mg every 6–8 hours daily) followed by oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 hours daily) for a total of 7–15 days. Levofloxacin-treated patients received an average of 7 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1–16 days); comparator-treated patients received an average of 8 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1–19 days).
Overall, in the clinically and microbiologically evaluable population, adjunctive therapy was empirically initiated at study entry in 56 of 93 (60.2%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 53 of 94 (56.4%) patients in the comparator arm. The average duration of adjunctive therapy was 7 days in the levofloxacin arm and 7 days in the comparator. In clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients with documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, 15 of 17 (88.2%) received ceftazidime (N=11) or piperacillin/tazobactam (N=4) in the levofloxacin arm and 16 of 17 (94.1%) received an aminoglycoside in the comparator arm. Overall, in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients, vancomycin was added to the treatment regimen of 37 of 93 (39.8%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 28 of 94 (29.8%) patients in the comparator arm for suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection.
Clinical success rates in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients at the post-therapy visit (primary study endpoint assessed on day 3–15 after completing therapy) were 58.1% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-17.2, 12.0]. The microbiological eradication rates at the posttherapy visit were 66.7% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of eradication rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-8.3, 20.3]. Clinical success and microbiological eradication rates by pathogen are detailed in Table 9.
Table 9: Clinical Success Rates and Bacteriological Eradication Rates (Nosocomial Pneumonia)
|Pathogen||N||Levofloxacin No. (%) of Patients Microbiologic/Clinical Outcomes||N||Imipenem/Cilastatin No. (%) of Patients Microbiologic/Clinical Outcomes|
|MSSA *||21||14 (66.7)/13 (61.9)||19||13 (68.4)/15(78.9)|
|P. aeruginosa †||17||10 (58.8)/11 (64.7)||17||5 (29.4)/7 (41.2)|
|S. marcescens||11||9 (81.8)/7 (63.6)||7||2 (28.6)/3 (42.9)|
|E. coli||12||10 (83.3)/7 (58.3)||11||7 (63.6 )/8 (72.7)|
|K. pneumoniae ‡||11||9 (81.8)/5 (45.5)||7||6 (85.7)/3 (42.9)|
|H. influenzae||16||13 (81.3)/10 (62.5)||15||14 (93.3)/11(73.3)|
|S. pneumoniae||4||3 (75.0)/3 (75.0)||7||5 (71.4)/4 (57.1)|
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