The signs and symptoms of overdosage are those of hyperthyroidism (see PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS). In addition, confusion and disorientation may occur. Cerebral embolism, shock, coma, and death have been reported. Seizures have occurred in a child ingesting approximately 20 mg of levothyroxine. Symptoms may not necessarily be evident or may not appear until several days after ingestion of levothyroxine sodium.
Levothyroxine sodium should be reduced in dose or temporarily discontinued if signs or symptoms of overdosage occur.
- Acute Massive Overdosage — This may be a life-threatening emergency, therefore, symptomatic and supportive therapy should be instituted immediately. If not contraindicated (e.g., by seizures, coma, or loss of the gag reflex), the stomach should be emptied by emesis or gastric lavage to decrease gastrointestinal absorption. Activated charcoal or cholestyramine may also be used to decrease absorption. Central and peripheral increased sympathetic activity may be treated by administering B-receptor antagonists, e.g., propranolol (1 to 3 mg intravenously over a 10-minute period, or orally, 80 to 160 mg/day). Provide respiratory support as needed; control congestive heart failure; control fever, hypoglycemia, and fluid loss as necessary. Glucocorticoids may be given to inhibit the conversion of T4 to T3 . Because T4 is highly protein bound, very little drug will be removed by dialysis.
The goal of replacement therapy is to achieve and maintain a clinical and biochemical euthyroid state. The goal of suppressive therapy is to inhibit growth and/or function of abnormal thyroid tissue. The dose of LEVOXYL that is adequate to achieve these goals depends on a variety of factors including the patient’s age, body weight, cardiovascular status, concomitant medical conditions, including pregnancy, concomitant medications, and the specific nature of the condition being treated (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). Hence, the following recommendations serve only as dosing guidelines. Dosing must be individualized and adjustments made based on periodic assessment of the patient’s clinical response and laboratory parameters (see PRECAUTIONS , Laboratory Tests).
The LEVOXYL should be taken in the morning on an empty stomach, at least one-half hour before any food is eaten. LEVOXYL should be taken at least 4 hours apart from drugs that are known to interfere with its absorption (see PRECAUTIONS , Drug Interactions).
Due to the long half-life of levothyroxine, the peak therapeutic effect at a given dose of levothyroxine sodium may not be attained for 4—6 weeks.
Caution should be exercised when administering LEVOXYL to patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, to the elderly, and to those with concomitant adrenal insufficiency (see PRECAUTIONS).
Therapy may begin at full replacement doses in otherwise healthy individuals less than 50 years old and in those older than 50 years who have been recently treated for hyperthyroidism or who have been hypothyroid for only a short time (such as a few months). The average full replacement dose of levothyroxine sodium is approximately 1.7 mcg/kg/day (e.g., 100—125 mcg/day for a 70 kg adult). Older patients may require less than 1 mcg/kg/day. Levothyroxine sodium doses greater than 200 mcg/day are seldom required. An inadequate response to daily doses ≥300 mcg/day is rare and may indicate poor compliance, malabsorption, and/or drug interactions.
For most patients older than 50 years or for patients under 50 years of age with underlying cardiac disease, an initial starting dose of 25—50 mcg/day of levothyroxine sodium is recommended, with gradual increments in dose at 6—8 week intervals, as needed. The recommended starting dose of levothyroxine sodium in elderly patients with cardiac disease is 12.5—25 mcg/day , with gradual dose increments at 4—6 week intervals. The levothyroxine sodium dose is generally adjusted in 12.5—25 mcg increments until the patient with primary hypothyroidism is clinically euthyroid and the serum TSH has normalized.
In patients with severe hypothyroidism, the recommended initial levothyroxine sodium dose is 12.5—25 mcg/day with increases of 25 mcg/day every 2—4 weeks, accompanied by clinical and laboratory assessment, until the TSH level is normalized.
In patients with secondary (pituitary) or tertiary (hypothalamic) hypothyroidism, the levothyroxine sodium dose should be titrated until the patient is clinically euthyroid and the serum free-T4 level is restored to the upper half of the normal range.
In general, levothyroxine therapy should be instituted at full replacement doses as soon as possible. Delays in diagnosis and institution of therapy may have deleterious effects on the child’s intellectual and physical growth and development.
Undertreatment and overtreatment should be avoided (see PRECAUTIONS ,Pediatric Use).
LEVOXYL may be administered to infants and children who cannot swallow intact tablets by crushing the tablet and suspending the freshly crushed tablet in a small amount (5—10 mL or 1—2 teaspoons) of water. This suspension can be administered by spoon or dropper. DO NOT STORE THE SUSPENSION. Foods that decrease absorption of levothyroxine, such as soybean infant formula, should not be used for administering levothyroxine sodium tablets. (see PRECAUTIONS , Drug-Food Interactions).
The recommended starting dose of levothyroxine sodium in newborn infants is 10—15 mcg/kg/day. A lower starting dose (e.g., 25 mcg/day) should be considered in infants at risk for cardiac failure, and the dose should be increased in 4—6 weeks as needed based on clinical and laboratory response to treatment. In infants with very low (< 5 mcg/dL) or undetectable serum T4 concentrations, the recommended initial starting dose is 50 mcg/day of levothyroxine sodium.
Levothyroxine therapy is usually initiated at full replacement doses, with the recommended dose per body weight decreasing with age (see TABLE 3). However, in children with chronic or severe hypothyroidism, an initial dose of 25 mcg/day of levothyroxine sodium is recommended with increments of 25 mcg every 2—4 weeks until the desired effect is achieved.
Hyperactivity in an older child can be minimized if the starting dose is one-fourth of the recommended full replacement dose, and the dose is then increased on a weekly basis by an amount equal to one-fourth the full recommended replacement dose until the full recommended replacement dose is reached.
|AGE||Daily Dose Per Kg Body Weight *|
|0—3 months||10—15 mcg/kg/day|
|3—6 months||8—10 mcg/kg/day|
|6—12 months||6—8 mcg/kg/day|
|1—5 years||5—6 mcg/kg/day|
|6—12 years||4—5 mcg/kg/day|
|>12 years||2—3 mcg/kg/day|
|Growth and puberty complete||1.7 mcg/kg/day|
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