Linezolid (Page 10 of 14)

Mechanisms of Resistance

In vitro studies have shown that point mutations in the 23S rRNA are associated with linezolid resistance. Reports of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium becoming resistant to linezolid during its clinical use have been published. There are reports of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant) developing resistance to linezolid during clinical use. The linezolid resistance in these organisms is associated with a point mutation in the 23S rRNA (substitution of thymine for guanine at position 2576) of the organism. Organisms resistant to oxazolidinones via mutations in chromosomal genes encoding 23S rRNA or ribosomal proteins (L3 and L4) are generally cross-resistant to linezolid. Also linezolid resistance in staphylococci mediated by the enzyme methyltransferase has been reported. This resistance is mediated by the cfr (chloramphenicol-florfenicol) gene located on a plasmid which is transferable between staphylococci.

Interaction with Other Antimicrobials

In vitro studies have demonstrated additivity or indifference between linezolid and vancomycin, gentamicin, rifampin, imipenem-cilastatin, aztreonam, ampicillin, or streptomycin.

Linezolid has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage (1)] .

Gram-positive bacteria

Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-resistant isolates only)

Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant isolates)

Streptococcus agalactiae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Greater than 90% of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro MIC less than or equal to the linezolid-susceptible breakpoint for organisms of similar genus shown in Table 12. The safety and effectiveness of linezolid in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-positive bacteria

Enterococcus faecalis (including vancomycin-resistant isolates)

Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin-susceptible isolates)

Staphylococcus epidermidis (including methicillin-resistant isolates)

Staphylococcus haemolyticus

Viridans group streptococci

Gram-negative bacteria

Pasteurella multocida

Susceptibility Test Methods

When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should provide the results of in vitro susceptibility test results for antimicrobial drug products used in local hospitals and practice areas to the physician as periodic reports that describe the susceptibility profile of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. These reports should aid the physician in selecting an antibacterial drug product for treatment.

Dilution Techniques

Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized method 1,2 (broth and/or agar). The MIC values should be interpreted according to criteria provided in Table 12.

Diffusion Techniques

Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters can also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size provides an estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The zone size should be determined using a standardized test method 2,3. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30 mcg linezolid to test the susceptibility of bacteria to linezolid. The disk diffusion interpretive criteria are provided in Table 12.

Table 12. Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria for Linezolid
S = susceptible, I = intermediate, R = resistant
*
For disk diffusion testing of staphylococcal species, petri plates should be held up to the light source and read with transmitted light. The zone margin should be considered the area showing no obvious, visible growth that can be detected with the unaided eye. Ignore faint growth of tiny colonies that can be detected only with a magnifying lens at the edge of the zone of inhibited growth. Any discernible growth within the zone of inhibition is indicative of resistance. Resistant results obtained by the disk diffusion method should be confirmed using an MIC method.
The current absence of data on resistant isolates precludes defining any categories other than “Susceptible”. Isolates yielding test results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be retested, and if the result is confirmed, the isolate should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing.

Pathogen

Susceptibility Interpretive Criteria

Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC in mcg/mL)

Disk Diffusion (Zone Diameters in mm)

S

I

R

S

I

R

Enterococcus spp

≤ 2

4

≥ 8

≥ 23

21 to 22

≤ 20

Staphylococcus spp *

≤ 4

≥ 21

Streptococcus pneumoniae

≤ 2

≥ 21

Streptococcus spp other than S pneumoniae

≤ 2

≥ 21

A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the antimicrobial drug is likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial drug reaches the concentration usually achievable at the site of infection. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the bacteria is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug product is physiologically concentrated or in situations where a high dosage of the drug product can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the antimicrobial is not likely to inhibit growth of the pathogen if the antimicrobial drug reaches the concentration usually achievable at the site of infection; other therapy should be selected.

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