Linzess (Page 2 of 6)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of LINZESS. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Hypersensitivity reactions: Anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash (including hives or urticaria)

Gastrointestinal reactions: Hematochezia, nausea, rectal hemorrhage

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8. 1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Linaclotide and its active metabolite are negligibly absorbed systemically following oral administration [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)] , and maternal use is not expected to result in fetal exposure to the drug. The available data on LINZESS use in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform any drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. In animal developmental studies, no effects on embryo-fetal development were observed with oral administration of linaclotide in rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses much higher than the maximum recommended human dosage. Severe maternal toxicity associated with effects on fetal morphology were observed in mice ( see Data ).

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the United States general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

The potential for linaclotide to cause harm to embryo-fetal development was studied in rats, rabbits and mice. In pregnant mice, oral dose levels of at least 40,000 mcg/kg/day given during organogenesis produced severe maternal toxicity including death, reduction of gravid uterine and fetal weights, and effects on fetal morphology. Oral doses of 5,000 mcg/kg/day did not produce maternal toxicity or any adverse effects on embryo-fetal development in mice. Oral administration of up to 100,000 mcg/kg/day in rats and 40,000 mcg/kg/day in rabbits during organogenesis produced no maternal toxicity and no effects on embryo-fetal development. Additionally, oral administration of up to 100,000 mcg/kg/day in rats during organogenesis through lactation produced no developmental abnormalities or effects on growth, learning and memory, or fertility in the offspring through maturation.

The maximum recommended human dose is approximately 5 mcg/kg/day, based on a 60-kg body weight. Limited systemic exposure to linaclotide was achieved in animals during organogenesis (AUC = 40, 640, and 25 ng•hr/mL in rats, rabbits, and mice, respectively, at the highest dose levels). Linaclotide and its active metabolite are not measurable in human plasma following administration of the recommended clinical dosages. Therefore, animal and human doses should not be compared directly for evaluating relative exposure.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Linaclotide and its active metabolite were not detected in the milk of lactating women (see Data). In adults, concentrations of linaclotide and its active metabolite were below the limit of quantitation in plasma following multiple doses of LINZESS [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ]. Maternal use of LINZESS is not expected to result in exposure to linaclotide or its active metabolite in breastfed infants. There is no information on the effects of linaclotide or its active metabolite on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for LINZESS and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from LINZESS or from the underlying maternal condition.

Data

Following oral administration of 72 mcg, 145 mcg, or 290 mcg of LINZESS once daily for 3 days to breastfeeding mothers taking linaclotide therapeutically, the concentrations of linaclotide and its metabolite were below the limits of quantitation (<0.25 ng/mL and <1 ng/mL, respectively) in all breast milk samples collected over 24 hours.

8.4 Pediatric Use

LINZESS is contraindicated in patients less than 2 years of age. In nonclinical studies, deaths occurred within 24 hours in neonatal mice (human age equivalent of approximately 0 to 28 days) following oral administration of linaclotide which increased fluid secretion as a consequence of age-dependent elevated GC-C agonism resulting in rapid and severe dehydration, as described below in Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data.

A GC-C ontogeny study measured GC-C mRNA expression levels in duodenal and colonic mucosal tissue samples from children aged 6 months to less than 18 years (N=99) to evaluate the risk of diarrhea and severe dehydration due to GC-C agonism in children. The results showed no age-dependent trend in GC-C intestinal expression in children 2 to less than 18 years of age. However, there are insufficient data available on GC-C intestinal expression in children less than 2 years of age to assess the risk of developing diarrhea and its potentially serious consequences [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)].

The safety and effectiveness of LINZESS in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data

In toxicology studies in neonatal mice, oral administration of linaclotide at 10 mcg/kg/day caused deaths on post-natal day 7 (human age equivalent of approximately 0 to 28 days). These deaths were due to rapid and severe dehydration produced by significant fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen resulting from GC-C agonism in neonatal mice [see Contraindications ( 4) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)].

Tolerability to linaclotide increases with age in juvenile mice. In 2-week-old mice, linaclotide was well tolerated at a dose of 50 mcg/kg/day, but deaths occurred after a single oral dose of 100 mcg/kg. In 3-week-old mice, linaclotide was well tolerated at 100 mcg/kg/day, but deaths occurred after a single oral dose of 600 mcg/kg.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation (IBS-C)
Of 2219 IBS-C patients in the placebo-controlled clinical studies of LINZESS (Trials 1, 2, and 6), 154 (7%) were 65 years of age and over, while 34 (2%) were 75 years and over. Clinical studies of LINZESS did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.

Chronic Idiopathic Constipation (CIC) Of 2498 CIC patients in the placebo-controlled clinical studies of LINZESS (Trials 3, 4, and 5), 273 (11%) were 65 years of age and over, while 56 (2%) were 75 years and over. Clinical studies of LINZESS did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Single LINZESS doses of 2897 mcg were administered to 22 healthy subjects; the safety profile in these subjects was consistent with that in the overall LINZESS-treated population, with diarrhea being the most commonly reported adverse reaction.

11 DESCRIPTION

LINZESS (linaclotide) is a guanylate cyclase-C (G-CC) agonist. Linaclotide is a 14-amino acid peptide with the following chemical name: L-cysteinyl-L-cysteinyl-L-glutamyl-L-tyrosyl-L-cysteinyl-L-cysteinyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-threonyl-glycyl-L-cysteinyl-L-tyrosine, cyclic (1-6), (2-10), (5-13)-tris (disulfide).

The molecular formula of linaclotide is C59 H79 N15 O21 S6 and its molecular weight is 1526.8. The amino acid sequence for linaclotide is shown below:

LINZESS (linaclotide) is a guanylate cyclase-C (G-CC) agonist. Linaclotide is a 14-amino acid peptide with the following chemical name: L-cysteinyl-L-cysteinyl-L-glutamyl-L-tyrosyl-L-cysteinyl-L-cysteinyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-cysteinyl-L-threonyl-glycyl-L-cysteinyl-L-tyrosine, cyclic (1-6), (2-10), (5-13)-tris (disulfide).
(click image for full-size original)

Linaclotide is an amorphous, white to off-white powder. It is slightly soluble in water and aqueous sodium chloride (0.9%). LINZESS contains linaclotide-coated beads in hard gelatin capsules. LINZESS is available as 72 mcg, 145 mcg and 290 mcg capsules for oral administration.

The inactive ingredients of LINZESS 72 mcg capsules include: calcium chloride dihydrate, L-histidine, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, and talc. The components of the capsule shell include gelatin and titanium dioxide.

The inactive ingredients of LINZESS 145 mcg and 290 mcg capsules include: calcium chloride dihydrate, hypromellose, L-leucine, and microcrystalline cellulose. The components of the capsule shell include gelatin and titanium dioxide.

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