The efficacy of LINZESS for the management of symptoms of CIC was established in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in adult patients (Trials 3 and 4). A total of 642 patients in Trial 3 and 630 patients in Trial 4 [overall mean age of 48 years (range 18 to 85 years), 89% female, 76% white, 22% black, 10% Hispanic] received treatment with LINZESS 145 mcg, 290 mcg, or placebo once daily and were evaluated for efficacy. All patients met modified Rome II criteria for functional constipation. Modified Rome II criteria were less than 3 Spontaneous Bowel Movements (SBMs) per week and 1 of the following symptoms for at least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months:
- Straining during greater than 25% of bowel movements
- Lumpy or hard stools during greater than 25% of bowel movements
- Sensation of incomplete evacuation during greater than 25% of bowel movements
Patients were also required to have less than 3 CSBMs per week and less than or equal to 6 SBMs per week during a 2-week baseline period. Patients were excluded if they met criteria for IBS-C or had fecal impaction that required emergency room treatment.
The trial designs were identical through the first 12 weeks. Trial 3 also included an additional 4-week randomized withdrawal (RW) period. During the trials, patients were allowed to continue stable doses of bulk laxatives or stool softeners but were not allowed to take laxatives, bismuth, prokinetic agents, or other drugs to treat chronic constipation.
The efficacy of LINZESS was assessed using a responder analysis and change-from-baseline endpoints. Results for endpoints were based on information provided daily by patients in diaries.
A CSBM responder in the CIC trials was defined as a patient who had at least 3 CSBMs and an increase of at least 1 CSBM from baseline in a given week for at least 9 weeks out of the 12-week treatment period. The CSBM responder rates are shown in Table 6. During the individual double-blind placebo-controlled trials, LINZESS 290 mcg did not consistently offer additional clinically meaningful treatment benefit over placebo than that observed with the LINZESS 145 mcg dose. Therefore, the 145 mcg dose is the recommended dose. Only the data for the approved 145 mcg dose of LINZESS are presented in Table 6.
In Trials 3 and 4, the proportion of patients who were CSBM responders was statistically significantly greater with the LINZESS 145 mcg dose than with placebo.
|Trial 3||Trial 4|
|LINZESS 145 mcg (N=217)||Placebo (N=209)||Treatment Difference [95% CI]||LINZESS 145 mcg (N=213)||Placebo (N=215)||Treatment Difference [95% CI]|
|CSBM Responder* (≥ 3 CSBMs and Increase ≥ 1 CSBM from Baseline)||20%||3%||17%[11.0%, 22.8%]||15%||6%||10%[4.2%, 15.7%]|
|*Primary Endpoint CI=Confidence Interval|
CSBM frequency reached maximum level during week 1 and was also demonstrated over the remainder of the 12-week treatment period in Trial 3 and Trial 4. For the mean change from baseline in CSBM frequency at week 12, the difference between placebo and LINZESS was approximately 1.5 CSBMs.
On average, patients who received LINZESS across the 2 trials had significantly greater improvements compared with patients receiving placebo in stool frequency (CSBMs/week and SBMs/week), and stool consistency (as measured by the BSFS).
In each trial, in addition to improvements in CSBM frequency over the first 12 weeks of the treatment period, improvements were observed in each of the following when LINZESS was compared to placebo: SBM frequency [SBMs/week], stool consistency [as measured by the BSFS], and amount of straining with bowel movements [amount of time pushing or physical effort to pass stool].
During the 4-week randomized withdrawal period in Trial 3, patients who received LINZESS during the 12-week treatment period were re-randomized to receive placebo or continue treatment on the same dose of LINZESS taken during the treatment period. In LINZESS-treated patients re-randomized to placebo, CSBM and SBM frequency returned toward baseline within 1 week and did not result in worsening compared to baseline. Patients who continued on LINZESS maintained their response to therapy over the additional 4 weeks. Patients on placebo who were allocated to LINZESS had an increase in CSBM and SBM frequency similar to the levels observed in patients taking LINZESS during the treatment period.
A 72 mcg dose of LINZESS was established in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial in adult patients (Trial 5). A total of 1223 patients [overall mean age of 46 years (range 18 to 90 years), 77% female, 71% white, 24% black, 43% Hispanic] received treatment with LINZESS 72 mcg or placebo once daily and were evaluated for efficacy. All patients met modified Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Trial 5 was identical to Trials 3 and 4 through the first 12 weeks. The efficacy of the 72 mcg dose was assessed using a responder analysis where a CSBM responder was defined as a patient who had at least 3 CSBMs and an increase of at least 1 CSBM from baseline in a given week for at least 9 weeks out of the 12-week treatment period, which was the same as the one defined in Trials 3 and 4. The response rates for the CSBM responder endpoint were 13% for LINZESS 72 mcg and 5% for placebo. The difference between LINZESS 72 mcg and placebo was 9% (95% CI: 4.8%, 12.5%).
A separate analysis was performed using an alternate CSBM responder definition. In this analysis a CSBM responder was defined as a patient who had at least 3 CSBMs and an increase of at least 1 CSBM from baseline in a given week for at least 9 weeks out of the 12-week treatment period and at least 3 of the last 4 weeks of the treatment period. The response rates for the alternate CSBM responder endpoint were 12% for LINZESS 72 mcg and 5% for placebo. The difference between LINZESS 72 mcg and placebo was 8% (95% CI: 3.9%, 11.5%).
|LINZESS Capsule Strength||Description||Packaging||NDC number|
|72 mcg||White to off-white opaque hard gelatin capsules with gray imprint “FL 72”||Bottle of 30||0456-1203-30|
|145 mcg||White to off-white opaque hard gelatin capsules with gray imprint “FL 145”||Bottle of 30||0456-1201-30|
|290 mcg||White to off-white opaque hard gelatin capsules with gray imprint “FL 290”||Bottle of 30||0456-1202-30|
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Keep LINZESS in the original container. Do not subdivide or repackage. Protect from moisture. Do not remove desiccant from the container. Keep bottles tightly closed in a dry place.
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