Lipitor

LIPITOR- atorvastatin calcium trihydrate tablet, film coated
Parke-Davis Div of Pfizer Inc

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is recommended as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. In patients with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD, LIPITOR can be started simultaneously with diet.

1.1 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults

In adult patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as age, smoking, hypertension, low HDL-C, or a family history of early coronary heart disease, LIPITOR is indicated to:

  • Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
  • Reduce the risk of stroke
  • Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures and angina

In adult patients with type 2 diabetes, and without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as retinopathy, albuminuria, smoking, or hypertension, LIPITOR is indicated to:

  • Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction
  • Reduce the risk of stroke

In adult patients with clinically evident coronary heart disease, LIPITOR is indicated to:

  • Reduce the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction
  • Reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke
  • Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures
  • Reduce the risk of hospitalization for CHF
  • Reduce the risk of angina

1.2 Hyperlipidemia

LIPITOR is indicated:

  • As an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb);
  • As an adjunct to diet for the treatment of adult patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV);
  • For the treatment of adult patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet;
  • To reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable;
  • As an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C, and apo B levels in pediatric patients, 10 years to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present:
    1. LDL-C remains ≥ 190 mg/dL or
    2. LDL-C remains ≥ 160 mg/dL and:
      • there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease or
      • two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the pediatric patient

1.3 Limitations of Use

LIPITOR has not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (Fredrickson Types I and V).

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia

The recommended starting dose of LIPITOR is 10 or 20 mg once daily. Patients who require a large reduction in LDL-C (more than 45%) may be started at 40 mg once daily. The dosage range of LIPITOR is 10 to 80 mg once daily. LIPITOR can be administered as a single dose at any time of the day, with or without food. The starting dose and maintenance doses of LIPITOR should be individualized according to patient characteristics such as goal of therapy and response. After initiation and/or upon titration of LIPITOR, lipid levels should be analyzed within 2 to 4 weeks and dosage adjusted accordingly.

2.2 Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Pediatric Patients (10 Years to17 Years of Age)

The recommended starting dose of LIPITOR is 10 mg/day; the usual dose range is 10 to 20 mg orally once daily [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy [see Indications and Usage (1.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12)]. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.

2.3 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

The dosage of LIPITOR in patients with HoFH is 10 to 80 mg daily. LIPITOR should be used as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) in these patients or if such treatments are unavailable.

2.4 Concomitant Lipid-Lowering Therapy

LIPITOR may be used with bile acid resins. The combination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and fibrates should generally be used with caution [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7)].

2.5 Dosage in Patients with Renal Impairment

Renal disease does not affect the plasma concentrations nor LDL-C reduction of LIPITOR; thus, dosage adjustment in patients with renal dysfunction is not necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.6 Dosage in Patients Taking Cyclosporine, Clarithromycin, Itraconazole, Letermovir, or Certain Protease Inhibitors

In patients taking cyclosporine or the HIV protease inhibitor tipranavir plus ritonavir or the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir or letermovir when co-administered with cyclosporine, therapy with LIPITOR should be avoided. In patients with HIV taking lopinavir plus ritonavir, use the lowest dose necessary of LIPITOR. In patients taking clarithromycin, itraconazole, elbasvir plus grazoprevir, or in patients with HIV taking a combination of saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir or letermovir therapy with LIPITOR should be limited to 20 mg, and appropriate clinical assessment is recommended to ensure that the lowest dose necessary of LIPITOR is used. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir therapy with LIPITOR should be limited to 40 mg. When co-prescribing atorvastatin with other protease inhibitors, appropriate clinical assessment is recommended to ensure that the lowest dose necessary of LIPITOR is used [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

LIPITOR tablets are white elliptical, film-coated, and are available in four strengths (see Table 1).

Table 1: LIPITOR Tablet Strengths and Identifying Features
Tablet Strength Identifying Features
10 mg of atorvastatin “PD 155″ on one side and “10″ on the other
20 mg of atorvastatin “PD 156″ on one side and “20″ on the other.
40 mg of atorvastatin “PD 157″ on one side and “40″ on the other
80 mg of atorvastatin “PD 158″ on one side and “80″ on the other

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Skeletal Muscle

Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with LIPITOR and with other drugs in this class. A history of renal impairment may be a risk factor for the development of rhabdomyolysis. Such patients merit closer monitoring for skeletal muscle effects.

Atorvastatin, like other statins, occasionally causes myopathy, defined as muscle aches or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values >10 times ULN. The concomitant use of higher doses of atorvastatin with certain drugs such as cyclosporine and strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, itraconazole, and HIV and HCV protease inhibitors) increases the risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis.

There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents.

Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing LIPITOR. LIPITOR therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected.

The risk of myopathy during treatment with drugs in this class is increased with concurrent administration of the drugs listed in Table 2. Physicians considering combined therapy of LIPITOR with any of these drugs should carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks and should carefully monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during the initial months of therapy and during any periods of upward dosage titration of either drug. Lower starting and maintenance doses of atorvastatin should be considered when taken concomitantly with the aforementioned drugs [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Periodic creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations may be considered in such situations, but there is no assurance that such monitoring will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy.

Prescribing recommendations for interacting agents are summarized in Table 2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Drug Interactions (7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Table 2. Drug Interactions Associated with Increased Risk of Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis
Interacting Agents Prescribing Recommendations
*
Use the lowest dose necessary (12.3)
Cyclosporine, tipranavir plus ritonavir, glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir, letermovir when co-administered with cyclosporine Avoid atorvastatin
Clarithromycin, itraconazole, saquinavir plus ritonavir *, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, elbasvir plus grazoprevir, letermovir Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily
Nelfinavir Do not exceed 40 mg atorvastatin daily
Lopinavir plus ritonavir, simeprevir, fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, azole antifungals, lipid-modifying doses of niacin, colchicine Use with caution and lowest dose necessary

LIPITOR therapy should be temporarily withheld or discontinued in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of a myopathy or having a risk factor predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., severe acute infection, hypotension, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine and electrolyte disorders, and uncontrolled seizures).

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