LIPOSYN II- safflower oil, soybean oil and egg phospholipids injection, emulsion
INTRAVENOUS FAT EMULSION
Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic fat emulsion for intravenous administration. It is supplied in both a 10% and 20% concentration.
Liposyn II 10% contains 5% safflower oil, 5% soybean oil, up to 1.2% egg phosphatides added as an emulsifier and 2.5% glycerin in water for injection. May contain sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. pH 8.0 (6.0 − 9.0). Liposyn II 10% has an osmolarity of 276 mOsmol/liter (actual). The total caloric value of Liposyn II 10% including fat, phospholipid and glycerol is 1.1 kcal/mL. Of this total, approximately 0.6 kcal/mL is supplied by linoleic acid.
Liposyn II 20% contains 10% safflower oil, 10% soybean oil, 1.2% egg phosphatides and 2.5% glycerin in water for injection. May contain sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. pH 8.3 (6.0 − 9.0). Liposyn II 20% has an osmolarity of 258 mOsmol/liter (actual). The total caloric value of Liposyn II 20% including fat, phospholipid and glycerol is 2 kcal/mL. Of this total, approximately 1.2 kcal/mL are supplied by linoleic acid.
Both Liposyn II 10% and Liposyn II 20% contain emulsified fat particles of approximately 0.4 micron in diameter, similar to naturally occurring chylomicrons.
Safflower oil and Soybean Oil, USP are mixtures of neutral triglycerides with the following structure:
, and are saturated and unsaturated fatty acid residues. The major component fatty acids of the 50/50 safflower/soybean oil mixture are approximately 65.8% linoleic, 17.7% oleic, 8.8% palmitic, 3.4% stearic, and 4.2% linolenic acid. These fatty acids have the following chemical and structural formulas:
Egg phosphatides, purified, are primarily a mixture of naturally occurring phospholipids which are isolated from the egg yolk. These phospholipids have the following general structure:
and are the same saturated and unsaturated fatty acid residues that abound in neutral fats. R3 is primarily either the choline [HOCH2 CH2 N(CH3 )3 OH] ester or ethanolamine (HOCH2 CH2 NH2 ) ester of phosphoric acid (H3 PO4 ).
Glycerin, USP is chemically designated C3 H8 03 and is a clear colorless, hygroscopic syrupy liquid. It has the following structural formula:structural formula safflower oil and soybean oilstructural formulastructural formulastructural formulastructural formula linoleic acidstructural formula oleic acidstructural formula palmitic acidstructural formula stearic acidstructural formula linolenic acidphospholipids general structurestructural formula glycerin
Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) provides the patient requiring parenteral nutrition with a source of calories and the essential fatty acids normally obtained from a nutritionally complete oral diet. The supplemental polyunsaturated fat prevents biochemical changes of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) and prevents and reverses EFAD clinical manifestations (e.g., scaliness of skin, growth retardation, poor wound healing and sparse hair growth).
The infused fat particles are cleared from the bloodstream in a manner thought to be similar to the clearing of chylomicrons. Following infusion, there is a transient increase in plasma triglycerides. The triglycerides are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids and glycerol by the enzyme, lipoprotein lipase. The free fatty acids either enter the tissues (where they may be oxidized or resynthesized into triglycerides and stored) or circulate in the plasma, bound to albumin. In the liver, circulating free fatty acids are oxidized or converted to very low density lipoproteins that re-enter the bloodstream.
Phosphatides are the hydrophobic components of membranes and provide electrically insulated layers. They are involved in the formation of membrane structures. Choline prevents the deposition of fat in the liver.
Glycerol is metabolized to carbon dioxide and glycogen or is used in the synthesis of body fats.
Liposyn II is indicated as a source of calories for patients requiring parenteral nutrition. Where such nutrition is required for extended periods of time (more than 5 days), Liposyn II is also indicated as a source of essential fatty acids to prevent or reverse biochemical changes in fatty acid composition of plasma lipids (elevated triene/tetraene ratio) and the clinical manifestations of EFAD.
The administration of Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) is contraindicated in patients demonstrating disturbances in normal fat metabolism such as pathologic hyperlipemia, lipoid nephrosis or acute pancreatitis if accompanied by hyperlipemia.
Deaths in preterm infants after infusion of intravenous fat emulsions have been reported in the medical literature.1,2 Autopsy findings included intravascular fat accumulation in the lungs. Treatment of premature and low birth weight infants with intravenous fat emulsion must be based upon careful benefit-risk assessment. Strict adherence to the recommended total daily dose is mandatory; hourly infusion rate should be as slow as possible in each case and should not in any case exceed 1 g/kg in four hours. Premature and small for gestational age infants have poor clearance of intravenous fat emulsion and increased free fatty acid plasma levels following fat emulsion infusion; therefore, serious consideration must be given to administration of less than the maximum recommended doses in these patients in order to decrease the likelihood of intravenous fat overload. The infant’s ability to eliminate infused fat from the circulation must be carefully monitored (such as triglyceride and/or plasma free fatty acid levels). The lipemia must clear between daily infusions.
Caution should be exercised in administering Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) to patients with severe liver damage, pulmonary disease, anemia or blood coagulation disorders or when there is danger of fat embolism. The too rapid administration of Liposyn II can cause fluid and/or fat overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, pulmonary edema, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity or metabolic acidosis.
Caution should be exercised when admixing Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion).
WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
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