Liposyn II (Page 2 of 3)

PRECAUTIONS

Because free fatty acids displace bilirubin bound to albumin, the use of lipid infusions in jaundiced or premature infants should be undertaken with caution.

During Liposyn II administration, the patient’s hemogram, blood coagulation, liver function, platelet count and plasma lipid profile must be closely monitored. The lipemia must clear between daily infusions. Liposyn II should be discontinued should a significant abnormality in any one of these parameters be attributed to the infusion.

Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Liposyn II. It is also not known whether Liposyn II can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Liposyn II should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers. It is not known whether the drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Liposyn II is administered to a nursing woman.

Frequent (some advise daily) platelet counts should be done in neonatal patients receiving parenteral nutrition with Liposyn II.

Liposyn II is supplied in single-dose containers. Partially used containers must be discarded and should not be stored or resterilized for later use. Do not administer the contents of any container in which the emulsion appears to be oiling out.

This product contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Sepsis due to contamination of administration equipment and thrombophlebitis due to vein irritation from concurrently administered hypertonic solutions have been encountered. These are attributable to I.V. therapy in general or to the type of infusion administered.

Adverse reactions directly related to fat emulsions are of two types: (1) immediate (acute) and (2) long term (chronic). In studies of lipid products in general, the following immediate reactions have been noted: Allergic reactions, hyperlipemia, dyspnea, cyanosis, flushing, dizziness, headache, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting, hyperthermia, sweating, chest and back pain, thrombocytopenia (rarely in neonates), hypercoagulability and transient increases in liver enzymes.

The following reactions have been noted with long-term therapy with lipid infusions in general: Hepatomegaly, jaundice due to central lobular cholestasis, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, transient increases in liver function tests, overloading syndrome and deposition of brown pigment (“fat pigment”) in the reticuloendothelial tissue of the liver. The significance of this last occurrence and its cause are unknown.

OVERDOSAGE

In the event of fat overload during therapy, stop the infusion of Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) until visual inspection of the plasma, determination of triglyceride concentrations, or measurement of plasma light-scattering activity by nephelometry indicates the lipid has cleared. Re-evaluate the patient and institute appropriate corrective measures. See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) should be administered as part of an intravenous total nutrition program via peripheral vein or central venous catheter.

Adult Patients

Liposyn II can provide up to 60% of daily calories at a dose not to exceed 3 g/kg of body weight per day. The other 40% should be provided by carbohydrate and amino acids.

For the prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency, the recommended daily requirement is approximately 4% of the caloric intake as linoleate. In most adult patients, this can be supplied as 500 mL of Liposyn II 10% or 250 mL of Liposyn II 20% administered twice weekly.

The initial infusion rate for the first 15 minutes should be 1 mL/minute for Liposyn II 10% and 0.5 mL/minute for Liposyn II 20%. If no adverse effects are observed during this initial infusion, the rate can be increased to allow no more than 500 mL of Liposyn II 10% or 250 mL of Liposyn II 20% to be given over a period of four to six hours.

Pediatric Patients

Liposyn II can provide up to 60% of daily calories at a dose not to exceed 4 g/kg of body weight per day. The other 40% should be provided by carbohydrate and amino acids.

For the prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency, the recommended daily requirement is approximately 4% of the caloric intake as linoleate. The daily dosage of Liposyn II ranges from 5 mL to 10 mL per kilogram for the 10% emulsion and 2.5 mL to 5 mL per kilogram for the 20% emulsion, depending upon the size and maturity of the patient.

The infusion should be started at a rate of 0.1 mL/minute for the first 15 minutes. If no adverse effects are observed during this initial infusion, the rate can be increased to allow no more than 100 mL of Liposyn II 10% or 50 mL of Liposyn II 20% per hour.

Administration

With the exception of heparin at 1 to 2 units/mL of fat emulsion, additives to the Liposyn II bottle are contraindicated.

Partly used containers must not be stored for later use. Filters of less than 1.2 micron porosity must not be used with Liposyn II. Do not use any bottle in which there appears to be an oiling out of the emulsion.

See CONTRAINDICATIONS regarding mixing this emulsion with other I.V. fluids or additives.

Liposyn II can be infused into the same central or peripheral vein as the carbohydrate/amino acid solutions by means of a short Y-connector near the infusion site. This allows for mixing of the solutions immediately before entering the vein or for alternation of each solution. Flow rates of each solution should be controlled separately by infusion pumps, if these are used. Fat emulsion may also be infused through a separate peripheral site. If desired, heparin may be added to Liposyn II at a concentration of 1 to 2 units per mL prior to administration. Alternatively, studies have documented the stability of Liposyn® II 10% and 20%, necessary Hospira electrolytes, Hospira trace metals, and Hospira 10% through 70% Dextrose Injection, USP in a TPN admixture container with the following Hospira amino acid solutions:

Concentrations

Aminosyn
(pH 6)

Aminosyn II

Aminosyn II w/
Electrolytes

7%

X

X

X

8.5%

X

X

X

10%

X

X

X

Admixtures were compounded in either a nonphthalate polyvinylchloride (PVC) or an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) container. (See NOTE). SEE MIXING INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMBINED ADMINISTRATION. Compounded admixtures may be stored under refrigeration for up to 24 hours. Administration of admixtures should be completed within 24 hours after removal from refrigeration.

Conventional administration sets contain polyvinyl chloride (PVC) components that have DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate) as a plasticizer. Fat-containing fluids such as Liposyn II extract DEHP from this PVC component, and it may be advisable to consider infusion of Liposyn II or the 3-in-1 admixture through a non-DEHP administration set.

A 1.2 micron air-eliminating filter can be used to deliver either a stable 3-in-1 admixture containing Liposyn II or the emulsion alone. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

MIXING INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMBINED ADMINISTRATION

Caution should be exercised when admixing Liposyn II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion).

It is absolutely essential that the admixture be prepared using strict aseptic techniques as this nutrient mixture is a good growth media for microorganisms.

Studies have documented the stability of Liposyn® II 10% and 20% with necessary Hospira electrolytes, Hospira trace metals, and Hospira 10% through 70% Dextrose Injection, USP in a TPN admixture container with the following Hospira amino acid solutions:

Concentrations

Aminosyn
(pH 6)

Aminosyn II

Aminosyn II w/
Electrolytes

7%

X

X

X

8.5%

X

X

X

10%

X

X

X

NOTE: The TPN admixture containers used in the stability studies were formulated to minimize lipid/container interactions. The principal bag materials were a nonphthalate polyvinylchloride (PVC) or ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The only significant leachable from EVA is acetate. Acetate is found in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) admixtures as acetic acid, used for adjusting the pH of amino acid solutions, and as lysine acetate. The level of leachable acetate from EVA is not sufficient to alter the final acetate concentration significantly. Compounded admixtures may be stored under refrigeration for up to 24 hours. Administration of admixtures should be completed within 24 hours after removal from refrigeration. Reference should be made to the individual package inserts for detailed information on each component.

The prime destabilizers of emulsions are excessive acidity (low pH) and inappropriate electrolyte content. Careful consideration should be given to the dosage levels of the divalent cations (Ca++ and Mg++) administered, as these have been shown to cause emulsion instability. Amino acid solutions exert a buffering effect, protecting the emulsion.

The following proper mixing sequence must be followed to minimize pH-related problems by ensuring that typically acidic dextrose injections are not mixed with lipid emulsion alone:

  1. Transfer Liposyn® II (Intravenous Fat Emulsion) to the TPN admixture container.
  2. Transfer Aminosyn® II (An Amino Acid Injection), Aminosyn II w/Electrolytes, or Aminosyn (pH 6).
  3. Transfer Hospira Dextrose Injection, USP.
  4. Perform addition of necessary Hospira electrolyte and Hospira trace metal additives.

Admixing should be accompanied by gentle agitation to avoid localized concentration effects. Simultaneous or sequential mixing of Liposyn II with other nutritional substrates using an automated, gravimetric pumping system is considered an acceptable method for admixture compounding, especially for institutions with a high volume of 3-in-1 admixtures.

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