Lisinopril (Page 4 of 6)

8.5 Geriatric Use

No dosage adjustment with lisinopril is necessary in elderly patients. In a clinical study of lisinopril in patients with myocardial infarctions (GISSI-3 Trial) 4,413 (47%) were 65 and over, while 1,656 (18%) were 75 and over. In this study, 4.8% of patients aged 75 years and older discontinued lisinopril treatment because of renal dysfunction vs. 1.3% of patients younger than 75 years. No other differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

8.6 Race

ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, have an effect on blood pressure that is less in Black patients than in non-Blacks.

8.7 Renal Impairment

Dose adjustment of lisinopril is required in patients undergoing hemodialysis or whose creatinine clearance is less than or equal to 30 mL/min. No dose adjustment of lisinopril is required in patients with creatinine clearance greater than 30 mL/min [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Following a single oral dose of 20 g/kg no lethality occurred in rats, and death occurred in one of 20 mice receiving the same dose. The most likely manifestation of overdosage would be hypotension, for which the usual treatment would be intravenous infusion of normal saline solution.

Lisinopril can be removed by hemodialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

11 DESCRIPTION

Lisinopril is an oral long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Lisinopril, a synthetic peptide derivative, is chemically described as (S)-1-[N2 -(1-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl)-L-lysyl]-L-proline dihydrate. Its empirical formula is C21 H31 N3 O5 • 2H2 O and its structural formula is:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Lisinopril, USP is a white to off-white, crystalline powder, with a molecular weight of 441.53. It is soluble in water and sparingly soluble in methanol and practically insoluble in ethanol.

Lisinopril tablets, USP, for oral administration, are supplied as 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg and 40 mg tablets.

Inactive Ingredients:

2.5 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, corn starch.

5 mg, 10 mg and 30 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, corn starch, red iron oxide.

20 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, corn starch, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide.

40 mg tablets – dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, mannitol, corn starch, yellow iron oxide.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Lisinopril inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in human subjects and animals. ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. The beneficial effects of lisinopril in hypertension and heart failure appear to result primarily from suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Inhibition of ACE results in decreased plasma angiotensin II which leads to decreased vasopressor activity and to decreased aldosterone secretion. The latter decrease may result in a small increase of serum potassium. In hypertensive patients with normal renal function treated with lisinopril alone for up to 24 weeks, the mean increase in serum potassium was approximately 0.1 mEq/L; however, approximately 15% of patients had increases greater than 0.5 mEq/L and approximately 6% had a decrease greater than 0.5 mEq/L. In the same study, patients treated with lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide for up to 24 weeks had a mean decrease in serum potassium of 0.1 mEq/L; approximately 4% of patients had increases greater than 0.5 mEq/L and approximately 12% had a decrease greater than 0.5 mEq/L [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. Removal of angiotensin II negative feedback on renin secretion leads to increased plasma renin activity.

ACE is identical to kininase, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin. Whether increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor peptide, play a role in the therapeutic effects of lisinopril remains to be elucidated.

While the mechanism through which lisinopril lowers blood pressure is believed to be primarily suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, lisinopril is antihypertensive even in patients with low-renin hypertension. Although lisinopril was antihypertensive in all races studied, Black hypertensive patients (usually a low-renin hypertensive population) had a smaller average response to monotherapy than non-Black patients.

Concomitant administration of lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide further reduced blood pressure in Black and non-Black patients and any racial differences in blood pressure response were no longer evident.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Hypertension

Adult Patients

Administration of lisinopril to patients with hypertension results in a reduction of both supine and standing blood pressure to about the same extent with no compensatory tachycardia. Symptomatic postural hypotension is usually not observed although it can occur and should be anticipated in volume and/or salt-depleted patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. When given together with thiazide-type diuretics, the blood pressure lowering effects of the two drugs are approximately additive.

In most patients studied, onset of antihypertensive activity was seen at one hour after oral administration of an individual dose of lisinopril, with peak reduction of blood pressure achieved by 6 hours. Although an antihypertensive effect was observed 24 hours after dosing with recommended single daily doses, the effect was more consistent and the mean effect was considerably larger in some studies with doses of 20 mg or more than with lower doses; however, at all doses studied, the mean antihypertensive effect was substantially smaller 24 hours after dosing than it was 6 hours after dosing.

The antihypertensive effects of lisinopril are maintained during long-term therapy. Abrupt withdrawal of lisinopril has not been associated with a rapid increase in blood pressure, or a significant increase in blood pressure compared to pretreatment levels.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents

In a study in 36 patients with mild to moderate hypertension where the antihypertensive effects of lisinopril alone were compared to lisinopril given concomitantly with indomethacin, the use of indomethacin was associated with a reduced effect, although the difference between the two regimens was not significant.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Adult Patients

Following oral administration of lisinopril, peak serum concentrations of lisinopril occur within about 7 hours, although there was a trend to a small delay in time taken to reach peak serum concentrations in acute myocardial infarction patients. Food does not alter the bioavailability of lisinopril. Declining serum concentrations exhibit a prolonged terminal phase, which does not contribute to drug accumulation. This terminal phase probably represents saturable binding to ACE and is not proportional to dose. Upon multiple dosing, lisinopril exhibits an effective half-life of 12 hours.

Lisinopril does not appear to be bound to other serum proteins. Lisinopril does not undergo metabolism and is excreted unchanged entirely in the urine. Based on urinary recovery, the mean extent of absorption of lisinopril is approximately 25%, with large intersubject variability (6% to 60%) at all doses tested (5 mg to 80 mg). The absolute bioavailability of lisinopril is reduced to 16% in patients with stable NYHA Class II-IV congestive heart failure, and the volume of distribution appears to be slightly smaller than that in normal subjects. The oral bioavailability of lisinopril in patients with acute myocardial infarction is similar to that in healthy volunteers.

Impaired renal function decreases elimination of lisinopril, which is excreted principally through the kidneys, but this decrease becomes clinically important only when the glomerular filtration rate is below 30 mL/min. Above this glomerular filtration rate, the elimination half-life is little changed. With greater impairment, however, peak and trough lisinopril levels increase, time to peak concentration increases and time to attain steady state is prolonged [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Lisinopril can be removed by hemodialysis.

Pediatric Patients

The pharmacokinetics of lisinopril were studied in 29 pediatric hypertensive patients between 6 years and 16 years with glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. After doses of 0.1 mg to 0.2 mg per kg, steady state peak plasma concentrations of lisinopril occurred within 6 hours and the extent of absorption based on urinary recovery was about 28%. These values are similar to those obtained previously in adults. The typical value of lisinopril oral clearance (systemic clearance/absolute bioavailability) in a child weighing 30 kg is 10 L/h, which increases in proportion to renal function. In a multicenter, open-label pharmacokinetic study of daily oral lisinopril in 22 pediatric hypertensive patients with stable kidney transplant (ages 7 to 17 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), dose normalized exposures were in the range reported previously in children without a kidney transplant.

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