LISINOPRIL (Page 2 of 6)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Fetal Toxicity
Lisinopril can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible [see Use in specific Populations (8.1)].
5.2 Angioedema and Anaphylactoid Reactions
Patients taking concomitant mTOR inhibitor (e.g. temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy or a neprilysin inhibitor may be at increased risk for angioedema. [see Drug Interactions (7.7, 7.8)].
Head and Neck Angioedema
Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx, including some fatal reactions, have occurred in patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, including lisinopril, at any time during treatment. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis or larynx are likely to experience airway obstruction, especially those with a history of airway surgery. Lisinopril should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring should be provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms of angioedema has occurred.
Patients with a history of angioedema unrelated to ACE inhibitor therapy may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving an ACE inhibitor [see Contraindications (4)]. ACE inhibitors have been associated with a higher rate of angioedema in black than in non-black patients.
Intestinal angioedema has occurred in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. In some cases, the angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization
Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life- threatening anaphylactoid reactions.
Anaphylactoid Reactions During Dialysis
Sudden and potentially life threatening anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in some patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. In such patients, dialysis must be stopped immediately, and aggressive therapy for anaphylactoid reactions must be initiated. Symptoms have not been relieved by antihistamines in these situations. In these patients, consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.
5.3 Impaired Renal Function
Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with lisinopril. Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on lisinopril. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on lisinopril [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Lisinopril can cause symptomatic hypotension, sometimes complicated by oliguria, progressive azotemia, acute renal failure or death. Patients at risk of excessive hypotension include those with the following conditions or characteristics: heart failure with systolic blood pressure below 100 mmHg, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hyponatremia, high dose diuretic therapy, renal dialysis, or severe volume and/or salt depletion of any etiology.
In these patients, lisinopril should be started under very close medical supervision and such patients should be followed closely for the first two weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of lisinopril and/or diuretic is increased. Avoid use of lisinopril in patients who are hemodynamically unstable after acute MI.
Symptomatic hypotension is also possible in patients with severe aortic stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
In patients undergoing major surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, lisinopril may block angiotensin II formation secondary to compensatory renin release. If hypotension occurs and is considered to be due to this mechanism, it can be corrected by volume expansion.
Serum potassium should be monitored periodically in patients receiving lisinopril. Drugs that inhibit the renin angiotensin system can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
5.6 Hepatic Failure
ACE inhibitors have been associated with a syndrome that starts with cholestatic jaundice or hepatitis and progresses to fulminant hepatic necrosis and sometimes death. The mechanism of this syndrome is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevations of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and receive appropriate medical treatment.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical trials in patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril, 5.7% of patients on lisinopril discontinued with adverse reactions.
The following adverse reactions (events 2% greater on lisinopril than on placebo) were observed with lisinopril alone: headache (by 3.8%), dizziness (by 3.5%), cough (by 2.5%).
In patients with systolic heart failure treated with lisinopril for up to four years, 11% discontinued therapy with adverse reactions. In controlled studies in patients with heart failure, therapy was discontinued in 8.1% of patients treated with lisinopril for 12 weeks, compared to 7.7% of patients treated with placebo for 12 weeks.
The following adverse reactions (events 2% greater on lisinopril than on placebo) were observed with lisinopril: hypotension (by 3.8%), chest pain (by 2.1%).
In the two-dose ATLAS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)] in heart failure patients, withdrawals due to adverse reactions were not different between the low and high groups, either in total number of discontinuation (17-18%) or in rare specific reactions (< 1%). The following adverse reactions, mostly related to ACE inhibition, were reported more commonly in the high dose group:
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Patients treated with lisinopril had a higher incidence of hypotension (by 5.3%) and renal dysfunction (by 1.3%) compared with patients not taking lisinopril.
Other clinical adverse reactions occurring in 1 % or higher of patients with hypertension or heart failure treated with lisinopril in controlled clinical trials and do not appear in other sections of labeling are listed below:
Body as a whole: Fatigue, asthenia, orthostatic effects.
Digestive: Pancreatitis, constipation, flatulence, dry mouth, diarrhea.
Hematologic: Rare cases of bone marrow depression, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia/neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
Endocrine: Diabetes mellitus, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Skin: Urticaria, alopecia, photosensitivity, erythema, flushing, diaphoresis, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and pruritus.
Special Senses: Visual loss, diplopia, blurred vision, tinnitus, photophobia, taste disturbances, olfactory disturbance.
Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia, fever, vasculitis, eosinophilia, leukocytosis, paresthesia and vertigo. Rash, photosensitivity or other dermatological manifestations may occur alone or in combination with these symptoms.
Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
Serum Potassium: In clinical trials hyperkalemia (serum potassium greater than 5.7 mEq/L) occurred in 2.2% and 4.8% of lisinopril-treated patients with hypertension and heart failure, respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in about 2% of patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril alone. Increases were more common in patients receiving concomitant diuretics and in patients with renal artery stenosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Reversible minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were observed in 11.6% of patients with heart failure on concomitant diuretic therapy. Frequently, these abnormalities resolved when the dosage of the diuretic was decreased.
Patients with acute myocardial infarction in the GISSI-3 trial treated with lisinopril had a higher (2.4% versus 1.1% in placebo) incidence of renal dysfunction in-hospital and at six weeks (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg/dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration).
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.4 g% and 1.3 vol%, respectively) occurred frequently in patients treated with lisinopril but were rarely of clinical importance in patients without some other cause of anemia. In clinical trials, less than 0.1% of patients discontinued therapy due to anemia.
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