12.2. Pharmacodynamics

Cardiac Electrophysiology:

In the dose ranging and confirmatory clinical studies, the administration of LONHALA MAGNAIR did not demonstrate any clinically relevant changes in cardiac function including: vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure), electrocardiograms (including QTc) and Holter monitoring. In addition, no major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were reported following the administration of LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg in any clinical study.

12.3. Pharmacokinetics


Following oral inhalation using MAGNAIR, glycopyrrolate was rapidly absorbed and reached peak plasma levels <20 minutes post dose.

In patients with COPD, pharmacokinetic steady-state plasma levels of glycopyrrolate were reached within one week of the start of treatment. A twice daily dose regimen leads to approximately 2-3 fold accumulation of systemic glycopyrrolate exposure at steady-state.


The in vitro human plasma protein binding of glycopyrrolate was 38% to 41% at concentrations of 1 to 10 ng/mL.


In vitro metabolism studies show glycopyrrolate hydroxylation resulting in a variety of mono- and bis-hydroxylated metabolites and direct hydrolysis resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid derivative (M9). Further in vitro investigations showed that multiple CYP isoenzymes contribute to the oxidative biotransformation of glycopyrrolate and the hydrolysis to M9 is likely to be catalyzed by members from the cholinesterase family pre-systemically and/or via first pass metabolism from the swallowed dose fraction of orally inhaled glycopyrrolate.


After intravenous administration of [3H]-labelled glycopyrrolate to humans, the mean urinary excretion of radioactivity in 48 hours amounted to 85% of the dose. A further 5% of the dose was found in the bile.

Renal elimination of parent drug accounts for about 60 to 70% of total clearance of systemically available glycopyrrolate whereas non-renal clearance processes account for about 30 to 40%. Biliary clearance contributes to the non-renal clearance, but the majority of non-renal clearance is thought to be due to metabolism.

Drug Interactions

In vitro inhibition studies demonstrated that glycopyrrolate has no relevant capacity to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 or CYP3A4/5, the efflux transporters MDR1, MRP2 or MXR, and the uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, OCT1 or OCT2.In vitro enzyme induction studies did not indicate a clinically relevant induction by glycopyrrolate for cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, or for UGT1A1 and the transporters MDR1 and MRP2.

There is potential for additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Therefore, avoid coadministration of LONHALA MAGNAIR with other anticholinergic-containing drugs as this may lead to an increase in anticholinergic effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6)].

Specific Populations

A population pharmacokinetic analysis of data in COPD patients indicated no clinically relevant effect of age (41 to 80 years) or body weight (40.1 to 154.8 kg) on systemic exposure to glycopyrrolate. In addition, there was no evidence of clinically significant ethnic/race effect.

Renal Impairment

The effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate have not been studied [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ].

Hepatic Impairment

The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of glycopyrrolate have not been studied. Glycopyrrolate is cleared predominantly from systemic circulation by renal excretion [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) ].


13.1. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies of glycopyrrolate did not result in an increase in the incidence of tumors in a 2-year inhalation study of glycopyrrolate in Wistar rats at doses up to 0.56 mg/kg/day, approximately 143 times the MRHDID of LONHALA MAGNAIR in adults on an AUC basis. Also, no evidence of tumorigenicity occurred in a 26-week oral (gavage) study in male and female TgrasH2 mice that received glycopyrrolate at doses up to 93.8 and 125.1 mg/kg/day, respectively, approximately 66 times the MRHDID of LONHALA MAGNAIR.

Glycopyrrolate was not mutagenic in the following genotoxicity assays: the in vitro Ames assay, in vitro human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay, and in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay.

Impairment of fertility was observed in male and female Wistar rats at a subcutaneous glycopyrrolate dose of 1.88 mg/kg/day (approximately and 2035 and 1136 times, respectively, the MRHD of LONHALA MAGNAIR on an AUC basis) based upon findings of decreased implantation sites and corresponding reduction of live fetuses. No effects on fertility and reproductive performance occurred in male and female rats at a subcutaneous glycopyrrolate dose of 0.63 mg/kg/day, approximately 384 times the MRHD of LONHALA MAGNAIR on an AUC basis).


The safety and efficacy of LONHALA MAGNAIR were evaluated in 2 dose-ranging studies, 2 placebo-controlled confirmatory studies (12-week studies), and a 48-week long-term safety study. The efficacy of LONHALA MAGNAIR is based primarily on the dose-ranging studies in 378 subjects with COPD and the 2 placebo-controlled confirmatory studies in 1293 subjects with COPD.

14.1. Dose Ranging Studies

Dose selection for the confirmatory COPD studies for LONHALA MAGNAIR was supported by two studies. Study A was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm study with a 28-day treatment period. The study included LONHALA MAGNAIR doses of placebo, 12.5 mcg, 25 mcg, 50 mcg, and 100 mcg twice daily. The Study demonstrated a dose-response effect on peak and trough FEV1 over 24-hour dosing period in subjects treated with LONHALA MAGNAIR twice daily [Figure 1 (Day 1) and Figure 2 (Day 28)]. The LS mean differences in trough FEV1 from baseline after 28 days compared to placebo for the 12.5 mcg, 25 mcg, 50 mcg, and 100 mcg twice daily doses were 0.117 L (95% CI: 0.037, 0.197); 0.128 L (95% CI: 0.048, 0.209), 0.146 L (95% CI: 0.067, 0.226), and 0.177 L (95% CI: 0.099, 0.255), respectively. In Study A, all subjects in each treatment group (N=282) had FEV1 AUC0-12h serial spirometry assessments while a subset of subjects (N=125; shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 below) had extended FEV1 AUC12-24h assessments on Days 1 and 28.

Study B was a randomized, six-way, crossover study with 7-day treatment periods separated by 5-7-day washout periods. Study B included LONHALA MAGNAIR doses of placebo, 3 mcg, 6.25 mcg, 12.5 mcg, and 50 mcg twice daily with aclidinium bromide 400 mcg BID as an active control.

The dose-ranging results from Study A and Study B supported the evaluation of LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg and 50 mcg twice-daily in the confirmatory COPD trials. The results of Study A are reported in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: LS Mean Change from Baseline in FEV 1 (L) Over Time on Day 1 (Study A)

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 2: LS Mean Change from Baseline in FEV 1 (L) Over Time on Day 28 (Study A)

Figure 2
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14.2. Confirmatory Studies

There were 2 confirmatory studies (Study 1 and Study 2) for LONHALA MAGNAIR. Both studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group 12-week studies in subjects with COPD designed to evaluate the efficacy of LONHALA MAGNAIR on lung function. These studies treated subjects who had a clinical diagnosis of COPD, were 40 years of age or older, had a history of smoking greater than or equal to 10 pack-years, a post –bronchodilator FEV1 less than or equal to 80% of predicted, and an FEV1 /FVC ratio less than 0.7. Subjects also had pre-existing or concurrent cardiovascular disease and stable, background LABA ± ICS and SAMA use were permitted. Subjects in Study 1 and Study 2 had a mean age of 63 years, were primarily male (56%), Caucasian (90%), and current smokers (53%) with an average smoking history of 52 pack-years. At screening, the mean post-bronchodilator percent predicted FEV1 was 52% (range: 20% to 80%), the mean post-bronchodilator percent FEV1 /FVC was 54% (range: 20% to 71%), and the mean percent reversibility was 18% (range: -33% to 86%).

Study 1 and Study 2 evaluated LONHALA MAGNAIR (glycopyrrolate) 25 mcg and 50 mcg twice-daily and placebo twice-daily. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in trough FEV1 at Day 84 compared with placebo. LONHALA MAGNAIR twice-daily demonstrated a larger increase in LS mean change from baseline in trough FEV1 compared to placebo. Compared to LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg twice daily, LONHALA MAGNAIR 50 mcg twice daily did not provide sufficient additional benefit on a variety of endpoints, including FEV1 , to support use of higher doses. Table 2 presents the results from Studies 1 and 2 for LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg twice daily.

Table 2. LS Mean change from baseline in Trough FEV1 (L) on Day 84 (ITT Population*)

*Study results are from a treatment policy strategy which analyzes all collected data, including data for some patients who discontinued study treatment prior to Week 12 and may have received other COPD treatment but were followed. Analyses of efficacy data measured only while on randomized blinded study treatment showed similar results.

Treatment N Change from baseline LS Mean (SE) Comparison Treatment Difference LS Mean (SE) 95% CI
Study 1
LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg BID 217 0.089 (0.014) LONHALA MAGNAIR — Placebo 0.096 (0.019) 0.059, 0.133
Placebo 218 -0.008(0.014)
Study 2
LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg BID 214 0.092 (0.014) LONHALA MAGNAIR — Placebo 0.081(0.020) 0.042, 0.120
Placebo 212 0.011 (0.015)

In Study 1, serial spirometric evaluations throughout the 12-hour dosing interval were performed in a subset of subjects on Day 1 and Day 84. The spirometric curves from Study 1 on Day 1 and Day 84 are displayed in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

Figure 3: Mean Change from Baseline in FEV 1 (L) Over Time on Day 1 (Substudy Population)

Figure 3
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 4: Mean Change from Baseline in FEV 1 (L) Over Time on Day 84 (Substudy Population)

Figure 4
(click image for full-size original)

The peak FEV1 was defined as the highest postdose FEV1 within the first 12 hours after morning dosing for each subject on Days 1 and 84, respectively, for the substudy population.

The mean peak FEV1 improvement from baseline for LONHALA MAGNAIR on Day 1 and on Day 84 in the subset of subjects was 0.228 L and 0.214 L (Study 1) respectively.

The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was assessed in Studies 1 and 2. In Study 1, the SGRQ responder rate (defined as an improvement in score of 4 or more as threshold) for the LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg treatment arm was 51% compared to 40% for placebo [Odds Ratio:1.55; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.33]. In Study 2, the SGRQ responder rate for the LONHALA MAGNAIR 25 mcg treatment arm was 41% compared to 29% for placebo [Odds Ratio: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.67].

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