Reduction in the Risk of Stroke: The LIFE study was a multinational, double-blind study comparing losartan and atenolol in 9193 hypertensive patients with ECG-documented left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with myocardial infarction or stroke within six months prior to randomization were excluded. Patients were randomized to receive once daily losartan 50 mg or atenolol 50 mg. If goal blood pressure (< 140/90 mmHg) was not reached, hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg) was added first and, if needed, the dose of losartan or atenolol was then increased to 100 mg once daily. If necessary, other antihypertensive treatments (e.g., increase in dose of hydrochlorothiazide therapy to 25 mg or addition of other diuretic therapy, calcium channel blockers, alpha-blockers, or centrally acting agents, but not ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists, or beta-blockers) were added to the treatment regimen to reach the goal blood pressure.
In efforts to control blood pressure, the patients in both arms of the LIFE study were coadministered hydrochlorothiazide the majority of time they were on study drug (73.9% and 72.4% of days in the losartan and atenolol arms, respectively).
Of the randomized patients, 4963 (54%) were female and 533 (6%) were Black. The mean age was 67 with 5704 (62%) age ≥ 65. At baseline, 1195 (13%) had diabetes, 1326 (14%) had isolated systolic hypertension, 1469 (16%) had coronary heart disease, and 728 (8%) had cerebrovascular disease. Baseline mean blood pressure was 174/98 mmHg in both treatment groups. The mean length of follow-up was 4.8 years. At the end of study or at the last visit before a primary endpoint, 77% of the group treated with losartan and 73% of the group treated with atenolol were still taking study medication. Of the patients still taking study medication, the mean doses of losartan and atenolol were both about 80 mg/day, and 15% were taking atenolol or losartan as monotherapy, while 77% were also receiving hydrochlorothiazide (at a mean dose of 20 mg/day in each group). Blood pressure reduction measured at trough was similar for both treatment groups but blood pressure was not measured at any other time of the day. At the end of study or at the last visit before a primary endpoint, the mean blood pressures were 144.1/81.3 mmHg for the group treated with losartan and 145.4/80.9 mmHg for the group treated with atenolol [the difference in SBP of 1.3 mmHg was significant (p < 0.001), while the difference of 0.4 mmHg in DBP was not significant (p = 0.098)].
The primary endpoint was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Patients with nonfatal events remained in the trial, so that there was also an examination of the first event of each type even if it was not the first event (e.g., a stroke following an initial myocardial infarction would be counted in the analysis of stroke). Treatment with losartan resulted in a 13% reduction (p = 0.021) in risk of the primary endpoint compared to the atenolol group; this difference was primarily the result of an effect on fatal and nonfatal stroke. Treatment with losartan reduced the risk of stroke by 25% relative to atenolol (p = 0.001).
The 3 controlled studies of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide included over 1300 patients assessing the antihypertensive efficacy of various doses of losartan (25, 50 and 100 mg) and concomitant hydrochlorothiazide (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg). A factorial study compared the combination of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50/12.5 mg with its components and placebo. The combination of losartan/hydrochlorothiazide 50/12.5 mg resulted in an approximately additive placebo-adjusted systolic/diastolic response (15.5/9.0 mmHg for the combination compared to 8.5/5.0 mmHg for losartan alone and 7.0/3.0 mmHg for hydrochlorothiazide alone). Another study investigated the dose-response relationship of various doses of hydrochlorothiazide (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg) or placebo on a background of losartan (50 mg) in patients not adequately controlled (Sitting Diastolic Blood Pressure [SiDBP] 93 to 120 mmHg) on losartan (50 mg) alone. The third study investigated the dose-response relationship of various doses of losartan (25, 50 and 100 mg) or placebo on a background of hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg) in patients not adequately controlled (SiDBP 93 to 120 mmHg) on hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg) alone. These studies showed an added antihypertensive response at trough (24 hours post-dosing) of hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 or 25 mg added to losartan 50 mg of 5.5/3.5 and 10.0/6.0 mmHg, respectively. Similarly, there was an added antihypertensive response at trough when losartan 50 or 100 mg was added to hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg of 9.0/5.5 and 12.5/6.5 mmHg, respectively. There was no significant effect on heart rate.
There was no difference in response for men and women or in patients over or under 65 years of age.
Black patients had a larger response to hydrochlorothiazide than non-Black patients and a smaller response to losartan. The overall response to the combination was similar for Black and non-Black patients.
Severe Hypertension (SiDBP ≥ 110 mmHg)
The safety and efficacy of losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets as initial therapy for severe hypertension (defined as a mean SiDBP ≥ 110 mmHg confirmed on 2 separate occasions off all antihypertensive therapy) was studied in a 6-week double-blind, randomized, multicenter study. Patients were randomized to either losartan and hydrochlorothiazide (50/12.5 mg, once daily) or to losartan (50 mg, once daily) and followed for blood pressure response. Patients were titrated at 2-week intervals if their SiDBP did not reach goal (< 90 mmHg). Patients on combination therapy were titrated from losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg to losartan 50 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (sham titration to maintain the blind) to losartan 100 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg. Patients on monotherapy were titrated from losartan 50 mg to losartan 100 mg to losartan 150 mg, as needed. The primary endpoint was a comparison at 4 weeks of patients who achieved goal diastolic blood pressure (trough SiDBP < 90 mmHg).
The study enrolled 585 patients, including 264 (45%) females, 124 (21%) blacks, and 21 (4%) ≥ 65 years of age. The mean blood pressure at baseline for the total population was 171/113 mmHg. The mean age was 53 years. After 4 weeks of therapy, the mean SiDBP was 3.1 mmHg lower and the mean SiSBP was 5.6 mmHg lower in the group treated with losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets. As a result, a greater proportion of the patients on losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets reached the target diastolic blood pressure (17.6% for losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets, 9.4% for losartan; p = 0.006). Similar trends were seen when the patients were grouped according to gender, race or age (<, ≥ 65).
After 6 weeks of therapy, more patients who received the combination regimen reached target diastolic blood pressure than those who received the monotherapy regimen (29.8% versus 12.5%).
Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets USP are supplied as a film-coated tablet.
50 mg/12.5 mg are yellow, film-coated, oval-shaped, unscored tablets, debossed with “93” on one side and “7367” on the other in bottles of 30 (NDC 0093-7367-56), 90 (NDC 0093-7367-98), and 1000 (NDC 0093-7367-10).
100 mg/12.5 mg are white to off-white, film-coated, oval-shaped, unscored tablets, debossed with “93” on one side and “7369” on the other in bottles of 30 (NDC 0093-7369-56), 90 (NDC 0093-7369-98), and 1000 (NDC 0093-7369-10).
100 mg/25 mg are light yellow, film-coated, oval-shaped, unscored tablets, debossed with “93” on one side and “7368” on the other in bottles of 30 (NDC 0093-7368-56), 90 (NDC 0093-7368-98), and 1000 (NDC 0093-7368-10).
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Keep container tightly closed. Protect from light.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).
Pregnancy: Advise female patients of childbearing age about the consequences of exposure to losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets during pregnancy. Discuss treatment options with women planning to become pregnant. Tell patients to report pregnancies to their physicians as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Symptomatic Hypotension: Advise patients that lightheadedness can occur, especially during the first days of therapy, and to report this symptom to a healthcare provider. Inform patients that dehydration from inadequate fluid intake, excessive perspiration, vomiting, or diarrhea may lead to an excessive fall in blood pressure. If syncope occurs advise patients to contact their healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Potassium Supplements: Advise patients not to use potassium supplements or salt substitutes containing potassium without consulting their healthcare provider [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle-closure Glaucoma: Advise patients to discontinue losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets and seek immediate medical attention if they experience symptoms of acute myopia or secondary angle-closure glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Manufactured In Israel By:
Teva Pharmaceutical Ind. Ltd.
Jerusalem, 9777402, Israel
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.
North Wales, PA 19454
Rev. M 11/2019
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