LOSARTAN POTASSIUM AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE- losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablet, film coated
Proficient Rx LP
- When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets as soon as possible.
- Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. See WARNINGS, Fetal Toxicity.
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 50 mg/12.5 mg, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 100 mg/12.5 mg, and losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 100 mg/25 mg combine an angiotensin II receptor (type AT1 ) antagonist and a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide.
Losartan potassium, a non-peptide molecule, is chemically described as 2-butyl-4-chloro-1-[p- (o -1H -tetrazol-5-ylphenyl)benzyl]imidazole-5-methanol monopotassium salt. Its structural formula is:
C22 H22 ClKN6 O M.W. 461.01
Losartan potassium is a white to off-white free-flowing crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in alcohols, and slightly soluble in common organic solvents, such as acetonitrile and methyl ethyl ketone.
Oxidation of the 5-hydroxymethyl group on the imidazole ring results in the active metabolite of losartan.
Hydrochlorothiazide is 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H -1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. Its structural formula is:
C7 H8 ClN3 O4 S2 M.W. 297.74
Hydrochlorothiazide is a white, or practically white, crystalline powder, which is slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in sodium hydroxide solution.
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP are available for oral administration in three tablet combinations of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide. Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 50 mg/12.5 mg contain 50 mg of losartan potassium and 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 100 mg/12.5 mg contain 100 mg of losartan potassium and 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 100 mg/25 mg contain 100 mg of losartan potassium and 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. Inactive ingredients are: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol-part hydrolyzed, pregelatinized starch, talc, and titanium dioxide. Additionally 50 mg/12.5 mg tablets contain D&C Yellow #10 (Aluminum Lake) and FD&C Blue #1 (Aluminum Lake). 100 mg/25 mg tablets contain D&C Yellow #10 (Aluminum Lake).
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 50 mg/12.5 mg contain 4.24 mg (0.108 mEq) of potassium, losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 100 mg/12.5 mg contain 8.48 mg (0.216 mEq) of potassium, and losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide tablets USP, 100 mg/25 mg contain 8.48 mg (0.216 mEq) of potassium.
Angiotensin II [formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II)], is a potent vasoconstrictor, the primary vasoactive hormone of the renin-angiotensin system and an important component in the pathophysiology of hypertension. It also stimulates aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. Losartan and its principal active metabolite block the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor found in many tissues (e.g., vascular smooth muscle, adrenal gland). There is also an AT2 receptor found in many tissues but it is not known to be associated with cardiovascular homeostasis. Both losartan and its principal active metabolite do not exhibit any partial agonist activity at the AT1 receptor and have much greater affinity (about 1000 fold) for the AT1 receptor than for the AT2 receptor. In vitro binding studies indicate that losartan is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of the AT1 receptor. The active metabolite is 10 to 40 times more potent by weight than losartan and appears to be a reversible, non-competitive inhibitor of the AT1 receptor.
Neither losartan nor its active metabolite inhibits ACE (kininase II, the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and degrades bradykinin); nor do they bind to or block other hormone receptors or ion channels known to be important in cardiovascular regulation.
Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic. Thiazides affect the renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption, directly increasing excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Indirectly, the diuretic action of hydrochlorothiazide reduces plasma volume, with consequent increases in plasma renin activity, increases in aldosterone secretion, increases in urinary potassium loss, and decreases in serum potassium. The renin-aldosterone link is mediated by angiotensin II, so coadministration of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist tends to reverse the potassium loss associated with these diuretics.
The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of thiazides is unknown.
Losartan is an orally active agent that undergoes substantial first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes. It is converted, in part, to an active carboxylic acid metabolite that is responsible for most of the angiotensin II receptor antagonism that follows losartan treatment. The terminal half-life of losartan is about 2 hours and of the metabolite is about 6 to 9 hours. The pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite are linear with oral losartan doses up to 200 mg and do not change over time. Neither losartan nor its metabolite accumulate in plasma upon repeated once-daily dosing.
Following oral administration, losartan is well absorbed (based on absorption of radiolabeled losartan) and undergoes substantial first-pass metabolism; the systemic bioavailability of losartan is approximately 33%. About 14% of an orally-administered dose of losartan is converted to the active metabolite. Mean peak concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite are reached in 1 hour and in 3 to 4 hours, respectively. While maximum plasma concentrations of losartan and its active metabolite are approximately equal, the AUC of the metabolite is about 4 times as great as that of losartan. A meal slows absorption of losartan and decreases its Cmax but has only minor effects on losartan AUC or on the AUC of the metabolite (about 10% decreased).
Both losartan and its active metabolite are highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin, with plasma free fractions of 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Plasma protein binding is constant over the concentration range achieved with recommended doses. Studies in rats indicate that losartan crosses the blood-brain barrier poorly, if at all.
Losartan metabolites have been identified in human plasma and urine. In addition to the active carboxylic acid metabolite, several inactive metabolites are formed. Following oral and intravenous administration of 14 C-labeled losartan potassium, circulating plasma radioactivity is primarily attributed to losartan and its active metabolite. In vitro studies indicate that cytochrome P450 2C9 and 3A4 are involved in the biotransformation of losartan to its metabolites. Minimal conversion of losartan to the active metabolite (less than 1% of the dose compared to 14% of the dose in normal subjects) was seen in about one percent of individuals studied.
The volume of distribution of losartan is about 34 liters and of the active metabolite is about 12 liters. Total plasma clearance of losartan and the active metabolite is about 600 mL/min and 50 mL/min, respectively, with renal clearance of about 75 mL/min and 25 mL/min, respectively. When losartan is administered orally, about 4% of the dose is excreted unchanged in the urine and about 6% is excreted in urine as active metabolite. Biliary excretion contributes to the elimination of losartan and its metabolites. Following oral 14 C-labeled losartan, about 35% of radioactivity is recovered in the urine and about 60% in the feces. Following an intravenous dose of 14 C-labeled losartan, about 45% of radioactivity is recovered in the urine and 50% in the feces.
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