Lotrel

LOTREL- amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsule
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation

WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY

When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Lotrel as soon as possible (5.1).

Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can cause injury and death to the developing fetus (5.1).

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Hypertension

Lotrel is indicated for the treatment of hypertension in patients not adequately controlled on monotherapy with either agent.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 General Considerations

The recommended initial dose is amlodipine 2.5 mg/benazepril 10 mg orally once-daily.

Begin therapy with Lotrel only after a patient has either (a) failed to achieve the desired antihypertensive effect with amlodipine or benazepril monotherapy, or (b) demonstrated inability to achieve adequate antihypertensive effect with amlodipine therapy without developing edema.

The antihypertensive effect of Lotrel is largely attained within 2 weeks. If blood pressure remains uncontrolled, the dose may be titrated up to amlodipine 10 mg/benazepril 40 mg once-daily. The dosing should be individualized and adjusted according to the patient’s clinical response.

In clinical trials of amlodipine/benazepril combination therapy using amlodipine doses of 2.5 to 10 mg and benazepril doses of 10 to 40 mg, the antihypertensive effects increased with increasing dose of amlodipine in all patient groups, and the effects increased with increasing dose of benazepril in nonblack groups.

2.2 Replacement Therapy

Lotrel may be substituted for the titrated components.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Lotrel (amlodipine/benazepril hydrochloride) capsules are available as follows:

5/10 mg, 5/20 mg, 10/20 mg, and 10/40 mg.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Do not coadminister aliskiren with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, including Lotrel in patients with diabetes.
  • Lotrel is contraindicated in patients with a history of angioedema, with or without previous ACE inhibitor treatment, or patients who are hypersensitive to benazepril, to any other ACE inhibitor, to amlodipine, or to any of the excipients of Lotrel.
  • Lotrel is contraindicated in combination with a neprilysin inhibitor (e.g., sacubitril). Do not administer Lotrel within 36 hours of switching to or from a neprilysin inhibitor, e.g., sacubitril/valsartan [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Fetal Toxicity

Lotrel can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Lotrel as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].

5.2 Angioedema and Anaphylactoid Reactions

Head and Neck Angioedema: Angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and larynx has been reported in patients treated with benazepril. This may occur at any time during treatment. Angioedema associated with edema of the larynx, tongue, or glottis can compromise the airway and be fatal. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, discontinue treatment with Lotrel and treat immediately. When involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx appears likely to cause airway obstruction, appropriate therapy, e.g., administer subcutaneous epinephrine injection 1:1000 (0.3 to 0.5 mL), promptly [see Adverse Reactions (6)].

Patients with a history of angioedema may be at increased risk for angioedema while receiving Lotrel. Black patients receiving ACE inhibitors have a higher incidence of angioedema compared to nonblacks.

Patients receiving coadministration of ACE inhibitor and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor (e.g., temsirolimus, sirolimus, everolimus) therapy or a neprilysin inhibitor may be at increased risk for angioedema [see Drug Interactions (7)].

Intestinal Angioedema: Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting); in some cases there was no prior history of facial angioedema and C-1 esterase levels were normal. The angioedema was diagnosed by procedures including abdominal CT scan or ultrasound, or at surgery, and symptoms resolved after stopping the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients on ACE inhibitors presenting with abdominal pain.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Desensitization: Two patients undergoing desensitizing treatment with hymenoptera (wasp sting) venom while receiving ACE inhibitors sustained life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions.

Anaphylactoid Reactions During Membrane Exposure: Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients dialyzed with high-flux membranes and treated concomitantly with an ACE inhibitor. Anaphylactoid reactions have also been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.

5.3 Increased Angina and/or Myocardial Infarction

Worsening angina and acute myocardial infarction can develop after starting or increasing the dose of amlodipine, particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease.

5.4 Hypotension

Lotrel can cause symptomatic hypotension, sometimes complicated by oliguria, progressive azotemia, acute renal failure, or death. Symptomatic hypotension is most likely to occur in patients who have heart failure, severe aortic or mitral stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or have been volume or salt depleted as a result of diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Correct volume and salt depletion before starting therapy with benazepril. If hypotension occurs, place the patient in the supine position and give physiological saline intravenously if needed. Continue treatment with benazepril once blood pressure and volume have returned to normal.

In patients with congestive heart failure, start Lotrel therapy under close medical supervision; follow closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dose of the benazepril component is increased or a diuretic is added or its dose increased.

In patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension, benazepril will block the angiotensin II formation that could otherwise occur secondary to compensatory renin release. Hypotension that occurs as a result of this mechanism can be corrected by volume expansion.

5.5 Impaired Renal Function

Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with Lotrel. Changes in renal function, including acute renal failure, can be caused by drugs that affect the RAS. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the RAS (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) or who are on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) or ARBs may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on Lotrel. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on Lotrel.

5.6 Hyperkalemia

Monitor serum potassium periodically in patients receiving Lotrel. Drugs that affect the RAS can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and the concomitant use of potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes. In U.S. placebo-controlled trials of Lotrel, hyperkalemia [serum potassium at least 0.5 mEq/L greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN)] not present at baseline occurred in approximately 1.5% of hypertensive patients receiving Lotrel. Increases in serum potassium were generally reversible.

5.7 Hepatitis and Hepatic Failure

There have been rare reports of predominantly cholestatic hepatitis and isolated cases of acute liver failure, some of them fatal, in patients on ACE inhibitors. The mechanism is not understood. Patients receiving ACE inhibitors who develop jaundice or marked elevation of hepatic enzymes should discontinue the ACE inhibitor and be kept under medical surveillance.

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