LUNESTA- eszopiclone tablet, coated
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur following use of LUNESTA. Some of these events may result in serious injuries, including death. Discontinue LUNESTA immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
LUNESTA® (eszopiclone) is indicated for the treatment of insomnia. In controlled outpatient and sleep laboratory studies, LUNESTA administered at bedtime decreased sleep latency and improved sleep maintenance.
The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 6 months in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency and maintenance were performed at 4 weeks in the 6-week study (adults only), at the end of both 2-week studies (elderly only) and at the end of the 6-month study (adults only).
Use the lowest effective dose for the patient.
The recommended starting dose is 1 mg. Dosing can be raised to 2 mg or 3 mg if clinically indicated. In some patients, the higher morning blood levels of LUNESTA following use of the 2 mg or 3 mg dose increase the risk of next day impairment of driving and other activities that require full alertness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. The total dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 3 mg, once daily immediately before bedtime [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
The total dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg in elderly or debilitated patients.
In patients with severe hepatic impairment, or in patients coadministered LUNESTA with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, the total dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ].
Dosage adjustments may be necessary when LUNESTA is combined with other central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs because of the potentially additive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Taking LUNESTA with or immediately after a heavy, high-fat meal results in slower absorption and would be expected to reduce the effect of LUNESTA on sleep latency [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
LUNESTA is available in 1 mg, 2 mg and 3 mg strengths for oral administration.
LUNESTA 3 mg tablets are round, dark blue, film-coated, and identified with debossed markings of S193 on one side.
LUNESTA 2 mg tablets are round, white, film-coated, and identified with debossed markings of S191 on one side.
LUNESTA 1 mg tablets are round, light blue, film-coated, and identified with debossed markings of S190 on one side.
LUNESTA is contraindicated in patients who have experienced complex sleep behaviors after taking LUNESTA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
LUNESTA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur following the first or any subsequent use of LUNESTA. Patients can be seriously injured or injure others during complex sleep behaviors. Such injuries may result in a fatal outcome. Other complex sleep behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have also been reported. Patients usually do not remember these events. Post-marketing reports have shown that complex sleep behaviors may occur with LUNESTA alone at recommended dosages, with or without the concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS depressants [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Discontinue LUNESTA immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior.
LUNESTA is a CNS depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients at the higher doses (2 mg or 3 mg), even when used as prescribed. Prescribers should monitor for excess depressant effects, but impairment can occur in the absence of symptoms (or even with subjective improvement), and impairment may not be reliably detected by ordinary clinical exam (i.e., less than formal psychomotor testing). While pharmacodynamic tolerance or adaptation to some adverse depressant effects of LUNESTA may develop, patients using 3 mg LUNESTA should be cautioned against driving or engaging in other hazardous activities or activities requiring complete mental alertness the day after use.
Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol), including daytime use. Downward dose adjustment of LUNESTA and concomitant CNS depressants should be considered [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
The use of LUNESTA with other sedative-hypnotics at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended.
The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased if LUNESTA is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7- to 8 hours); if higher than the recommended dose is taken; if coadministered with other CNS depressants; or coadministered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of eszopiclone [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].
Because Lunesta can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, patients, particularly the elderly, are at higher risk of falls.
Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including LUNESTA. Because some of the important adverse effects of LUNESTA appear to be dose related, it is important to use the lowest possible effective dose, especially in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including LUNESTA. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with LUNESTA should not be rechallenged with the drug.
A variety of abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported to occur in association with the use of sedative/hypnotics. Some of these changes may be characterized by decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seem out of character), similar to effects produced by alcohol and other CNS depressants. Other reported behavioral changes have included bizarre behavior, agitation, hallucinations, and depersonalization. Amnesia and other neuropsychiatric symptoms may occur unpredictably.
It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above is drug induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation.
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