MAGNESIUM SULFATE- magnesium sulfate heptahydrate injection
WG Critical Care, LLC
Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in water for injection. May contain sulfuric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. The pH is 4.5 (3.5 to 6.5). It is available in 4% and 8% concentrations. See HOW SUPPLIED section for the content and characteristics of available dosage forms and sizes.
Magnesium Sulfate, USP heptahydrate is chemically designated MgSO4 • 7H2 O, colorless crystals or white powder freely soluble in water.
Water for Injection, USP is chemically designated H2 O.
The single port bag is made of Nexcel M312A material, a 5-layer, polyolefin based on co-extrude film. Water can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap but not in amounts sufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials.
Exposure to temperatures above 25°C/77°F during transport and storage will lead to minor losses in moisture content. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.
Magnesium (Mg++) is an important cofactor for enzymatic reactions and plays an important role in neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability.
Magnesium prevents or controls convulsions by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing the amount of acetylcholine liberated at the end plate by the motor nerve impulse. Magnesium is said to have a depressant effect on the central nervous system, but it does not adversely affect the mother, fetus or neonate when used as directed in eclampsia or pre-eclampsia. Normal serum magnesium levels range from 1.3 to 2.1 mEq/liter.
As serum magnesium rises above 4 mEq/liter, the deep tendon reflexes are first decreased and then disappear as the serum level approaches 10 mEq/liter. At this level respiratory paralysis may occur. Heart block also may occur at this or lower serum levels of magnesium.
Magnesium acts peripherally to produce vasodilation. With low doses only flushing and sweating occur, but larger doses cause lowering of blood pressure. The central and peripheral effects of magnesium poisoning are antagonized to some extent by intravenous administration of calcium.
With intravenous administration the onset of anticonvulsant action is immediate and lasts about 30 minutes. Following intramuscular administration the onset of action occurs in about one hour and persists for three to four hours. Effective anticonvulsant serum levels range from 2.5 to 7.5 mEq/liter.
Intravenously administered magnesium is immediately absorbed
Approximately 1-2% of total body magnesium is located in the extracellular fluid space. Magnesium is 30% bound to albumin.
Magnesium is not metabolized.
Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration.
Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney. In patients with severe renal insufficiency, the dose should be lower and frequent serum magnesium levels must be obtained (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney. No dosing adjustments are necessary in hepatic insufficiency.
Drug induced renal losses of magnesium occur with the following drugs or drug classes:
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Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection is indicated for the prevention and control of seizures in preeclampsia and eclampsia, respectively. When used judiciously it effectively prevents and controls the convulsions of eclampsia without producing deleterious depression of the central nervous system of the mother or infant. However, other effective drugs are available for this purpose.
Intravenous magnesium should not be given to mothers with toxemia of pregnancy during the two hours preceding delivery.
FETAL HARM: Continuous administration of magnesium sulfate beyond 5-7 days to pregnant women can lead to hypocalcemia and bone abnormalities in the developing fetus. These bone abnormalities include skeletal demineralization and osteopenia. In addition, cases of neonatal fracture have been reported. The shortest duration of treatment that can lead to fetal harm is not known. Magnesium sulfate should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If magnesium sulfate is given for treatment of preterm labor, the woman should be informed that the efficacy and safety of such use have not been established and that use of magnesium sulfate beyond 5-7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.
Parenteral use in the presence of renal insufficiency may lead to magnesium intoxication.
Because magnesium is removed from the body solely by the kidneys, the drug should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment. Urine output should be maintained at a level of 100 mL every four hours. Monitoring serum magnesium levels and the patient’s clinical status is essential to avoid the consequences of overdosage in toxemia. Clinical indications of a safe dosage regimen include the presence of the patellar reflex (knee jerk) and absence of respiratory depression (approximately 16 breaths or more/minute). Serum magnesium levels usually sufficient to control convulsions range from 3 to 6 mg/100 mL (2.5 to 5 mEq/liter). The strength of the deep tendon reflexes begins to diminish when serum magnesium levels exceed 4 mEq/liter. Reflexes may be absent at 10 mEq magnesium/liter, where respiratory paralysis is a potential hazard. An injectable calcium salt should be immediately available to counteract the potential hazards of magnesium intoxication in eclampsia.
Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection should be administered slowly to avoid producing hypermagnesemia.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Studies with Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential or effects on fertility.
Pregnancy Category D (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS)
See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.
Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection can cause fetal abnormalities when administered beyond 5-7 days to pregnant women. There are retrospective epidemiological studies and case reports documenting fetal abnormalities such as hypocalcemia, skeletal demineralization’s, osteopenia and other skeletal abnormalities with continuous maternal administration of magnesium sulfate for more than 5-7 days.1-12 Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If this drug is used during pregnancy the woman should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus.
When administered by continuous IV infusion (especially for more than 24 hours preceding delivery) to control convulsions in a toxemic woman, the newborn may show signs of magnesium toxicity, including neuromuscular or respiratory depression. (See OVERDOSAGE . )
Continuous administration of magnesium sulfate is an unapproved treatment for preterm labor. The safety and efficacy of such use have not been established. The administration of Magnesium Sulfate in Water for Injection outside of its approved indication in pregnant women should be by trained obstetrical personnel in a hospital setting with appropriate obstetrical care facilities.
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