Table 4 provides dosing recommendations for patients based on renal function and concomitant medications.
Table 4. Recommended Dosage in Adults Based on Renal Function
|Concomitant Medications||Dosage of Maraviroc Tablets Based on Renal Function|
|Normal (CrCl >80 mL/min)||Mild (CrCl >50 and ≤80 mL/min)||Moderate (CrCl ≥30 and ≤50 mL/min)||Severe (CrCl <30 mL/min)||End-Stage Renal Disease on Regular Hemodialysis|
|Potent CYP3A inhibitors (with or without a CYP3A inducer) a||150 mg twice daily||150 mg twice daily||150 mg twice daily||Contraindicated||Contraindicated|
|Noninteracting concomitant medications b||300 mg twice daily||300 mg twice daily||300 mg twice daily||300 mg twice daily||300 mg twice daily c|
|Potent and moderate CYP3A inducers (without a potent CYP3A inhibitor) d||600 mg twice daily||600 mg twice daily||600 mg twice daily||Contraindicated||Contraindicated|
a Potent CYP3A inhibitors (with or without a CYP3A inducer) including: clarithromycin, cobicistat, elvitegravir/ritonavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, protease inhibitors (except tipranavir/ritonavir), telithromycin.
b Noninteracting concomitant medications include all medications that are not potent CYP3A inhibitors or inducers such as: dolutegravir, enfuvirtide, nevirapine, all NRTIs, raltegravir, and tipranavir/ritonavir.
c Dosage of maraviroc tablets should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily if there are any symptoms of postural hypotension [ see Contraindications ( 4) , Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)] .
d Potent and moderate CYP3A inducers (without a potent CYP3A inhibitor) including: carbamazepine, efavirenz, etravirine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and rifampin.
There are no data to recommend specific doses of maraviroc tablets in pediatric patients with mild or moderate renal impairment [ see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6) ]. Additionally, maraviroc tablets are contraindicated for pediatric patients with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on regular hemodialysis who are receiving potent CYP3A inhibitors or inducers [ see Contraindications ( 4) ].
• 150 mg white to off-white colored, oval, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘J’ on one side and ‘62’ on the other side.
• 300 mg white to off-white colored, oval, biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘J’ on one side and ‘63’ on the other side.
Maraviroc tablets are contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD (CrCl less than 30 mL per minute) who are concomitantly taking potent CYP3A inhibitors or inducers [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) ].
Hepatotoxicity with allergic features including life-threatening events has been reported in clinical trials and postmarketing. Severe rash or evidence of systemic allergic reaction including drug-related rash with fever, eosinophilia, elevated IgE, or other systemic symptoms have been reported in conjunction with hepatotoxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2) ]. These events occurred approximately 1 month after starting treatment. Among reported cases of hepatitis, some were observed in the absence of allergic features or with no pre-existing hepatic disease.
Appropriate laboratory testing including ALT, AST, and bilirubin should be conducted prior to initiating therapy with maraviroc and at other time points during treatment as clinically indicated. Hepatic laboratory parameters should be obtained in any patient who develops rash, or signs or symptoms of hepatitis, or allergic reaction. Discontinuation of maraviroc should be considered in any patient with signs or symptoms of hepatitis, or with increased liver transaminases combined with rash or other systemic symptoms.
When administering maraviroc to patients with pre-existing liver dysfunction or who are co-infected with hepatitis B and/or C virus, additional monitoring may be warranted. The safety and efficacy of maraviroc have not been specifically studied in patients with significant underlying liver disorders.
Severe, potentially life-threatening skin and hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients taking maraviroc, in most cases concomitantly with other drugs associated with these reactions. These include cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) [ see Adverse Reactions (6.3) ]. The cases were characterized by features including rash, constitutional findings, and sometimes organ dysfunction, including hepatic failure. Discontinue maraviroc and other suspected agents immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin or hypersensitivity reactions develop (including, but not limited to, severe rash or rash accompanied by fever, malaise, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, facial edema, lip swelling, eosinophilia). Delay in stopping treatment with maraviroc or other suspect drugs after the onset of rash may result in a life-threatening reaction. Clinical status, including liver aminotransferases, should be monitored and appropriate therapy initiated.
Eleven subjects (1.3%) who received maraviroc had cardiovascular events, including myocardial ischemia and/or infarction, during the Phase 3 trials in treatment-experienced subjects (total exposure 609 patient-years [300 on maraviroc once daily + 309 on maraviroc twice daily]), while no subjects who received placebo had such events (total exposure 111 patient-years). These subjects generally had cardiac disease or cardiac risk factors prior to use of maraviroc, and the relative contribution of maraviroc to these events is not known.
In the Phase 2b/3 trial in treatment-naive adult subjects, 3 subjects (0.8%) who received maraviroc had events related to ischemic heart disease and 5 subjects (1.4%) who received efavirenz had such events (total exposure 506 and 508 patient-years for maraviroc and efavirenz, respectively).
When maraviroc was administered to healthy volunteers at doses higher than the recommended dose, symptomatic postural hypotension was seen at a greater frequency than in placebo. However, when maraviroc was given at the recommended dose in HIV-1-infected adult subjects in Phase 3 trials, postural hypotension was seen at a rate similar to placebo (approximately 0.5%).
Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, risk factors for postural hypotension, or receiving concomitant medication known to lower blood pressure, could be at increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events triggered by postural hypotension. Additional monitoring may be warranted.
Postural Hypotension in Patients with Renal Impairment
An increased risk of postural hypotension may occur in patients with severe renal insufficiency or in those with ESRD due to increased maraviroc exposure in some patients. Maraviroc should be used in patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD only if they are not receiving a concomitant potent CYP3A inhibitor or inducer. However, the use of maraviroc in these patients should only be considered when no alternative treatment options are available. If adult patients with severe renal impairment or ESRD experience any symptoms of postural hypotension while taking 300 mg twice daily, the dose should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5) ].
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