During epidural administration, administer Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection, 0.5% (5 mg/mL) and 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) solutions in incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL with sufficient time between doses to detect toxic manifestations of unintentional intravascular or intrathecal injection. Administer injections slowly, with frequent aspirations before and during the injection to avoid intravascular injection. Perform syringe aspirations before and during each supplemental injection in continuous (intermittent) catheter techniques. In obstetrics, use ONLY the 0.5% (5 mg/mL) and 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL) concentrations of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] ; incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL of the 0.5% (5 mg/mL) solution not exceeding 50 mg to 100 mg at any dosing interval are recommended. Repeat doses should be preceded by a test dose containing epinephrine if not clinically contraindicated. Use only the single-dose vials for caudal or epidural anesthesia; avoid use of the multiple-dose vials for these procedures, which contain a preservative [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] .
When Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) is used for retrobulbar block, complete corneal anesthesia usually precedes onset of clinically acceptable external ocular muscle akinesia. Therefore, presence of akinesia rather than anesthesia alone should determine readiness of the patient for surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)] .
Bupivacaine hydrochloride injection, USP is a clear, colorless solution available as:
- 0.25% (25 mg/10 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in single-dose vials.
- 0.25% (75 mg/30 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in single-dose vials.
- 0.5% (50 mg/10 mL) (5 mg/mL) in single-dose vials.
- 0.5% (150 mg/30 mL) (5 mg/mL) in single-dose vials.
- 0.75% (75 mg/10 mL) (7.5 mg/mL) in single-dose vials.
- 0.75% (225 mg/30 mL) (7.5 mg/mL) in single-dose vials.
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in:
- obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia. Its use in this technique has resulted in fetal bradycardia and death.
- intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier Block) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] .
- patients with a known hypersensitivity to bupivacaine or to any local anesthetic agent of the amide-type or to other components of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection.
5.1 Risk of Cardiac Arrest with Use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection in Obstetrical Anesthesia
There have been reports of cardiac arrest with difficult resuscitation or death during use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection for epidural anesthesia in obstetrical patients. In most cases, this has followed use of the 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) concentration. Resuscitation has been difficult or impossible despite apparently adequate preparation and appropriate management. Cardiac arrest has occurred after convulsions resulting from systemic toxicity, presumably following unintentional intravascular injection. The 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) concentration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection is not recommended for obstetrical anesthesia and should be reserved for surgical procedures where a high degree of muscle relaxation and prolonged effect are necessary.
The safety and effectiveness of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness should be performed after injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection solutions.
Possible early warning signs of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity are restlessness, anxiety, incoherent speech, lightheadedness, numbness and tingling of the mouth and lips, metallic taste, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, twitching, CNS depression, or drowsiness. Delay in proper management of dose-related toxicity, underventilation from any cause, and/or altered sensitivity may lead to the development of acidosis, cardiac arrest, and, possibly, death.
During major regional nerve blocks, such as those of the brachial plexus or lower extremity, the patient should have an indwelling intravenous catheter to assure adequate intravenous access. Use the lowest dosage of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection that results in effective anesthesia to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Avoid rapid injection of a large volume of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride solution and administer fractional (incremental) doses when feasible.
Injection of repeated doses of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection may cause significant increases in plasma levels with each repeated dose due to slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites, or to slow metabolic degradation. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients and acutely ill patients should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical status.
Cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported in association with local anesthetic use. Although all patients are at risk for methemoglobinemia, patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia, cardiac or pulmonary compromise, infants under 6 months of age, and concurrent exposure to oxidizing agents or their metabolites are more susceptible to developing clinical manifestations of the condition [see Drug Interactions (7.5)] . If local anesthetics must be used in these patients, close monitoring for symptoms and signs of methemoglobinemia is recommended.
Signs of methemoglobinemia may occur immediately or may be delayed some hours after exposure and are characterized by a cyanotic skin discoloration and/or abnormal coloration of the blood. Methemoglobin levels may continue to rise; therefore, immediate treatment is required to avert more serious CNS and cardiovascular adverse effects, including seizures, coma, arrhythmias, and death. Discontinue Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection and any other oxidizing agents. Depending on the severity of the signs and symptoms, patients may respond to supportive care, i.e., oxygen therapy, hydration. A more severe clinical presentation may require treatment with methylene blue, exchange transfusion, or hyperbaric oxygen.
Intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics including Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection following arthroscopic and other surgical procedures is an unapproved use, and there have been post-marketing reports of chondrolysis in patients receiving such infusions. The majority of reported cases of chondrolysis have involved the shoulder joint; cases of gleno-humeral chondrolysis have been described in pediatric and adult patients following intra-articular infusions of local anesthetics with and without epinephrine for periods of 48 to 72 hours. There is insufficient information to determine whether shorter infusion periods are associated with chondrolysis. The time of onset of symptoms, such as joint pain, stiffness and loss of motion can be variable, but may begin as early as the 2 nd month after surgery. Currently, there is no effective treatment for chondrolysis; patients who experienced chondrolysis have required additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and some required arthroplasty or shoulder replacement.
There have been reports of cardiac arrest and death during the use of bupivacaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier Block). Information on safe dosages and techniques of administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection in this procedure is lacking. Therefore, Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection is contraindicated for use with this technique [see Contraindications (4)] .
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