MEFENAMIC ACID — mefenamic acid capsule
Micro Labs Limited
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use ( see WARNINGS).
- Mefenamic acid is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS).
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events (see WARNINGS).
Mefenamic Acid Capsules are a member of the fenamate group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Each Size ‘1’ Yellow-Yellow capsule, with ‘ML’ imprinted on the cap & ‘250’ imprinted on the body, contains 250 mg of mefenamic acid for oral administration. Mefenamic acid is a white to greyish-white, odorless, microcrystalline powder with a melting point of 230° to 231°C and water solubility of 0.004% at pH 7.1. The chemical name is N-2,3-xylylanthranilic acid. The molecular weight is 241.29. Its molecular formula is C
2 and the structural formula of mefenamic acid is:
Each capsule also contains lactose monohydrate. The capsule shell contains D&C yellow No. 10; FD&C blue No. 1; FD&C red No. 3; FD&C yellow No. 6; gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, black iron oxide, propylene glycol & shellac.
Mechanism of Action
Mefenamic acid has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.
The mechanism of action of mefenamic acid, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).
Mefenamic acid is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Mefenamic acid concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because mefenamic acid is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.
Mefenamic acid is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. In two 500-mg single oral dose studies, the mean extent of absorption was 30.5 mcg/hr/mL (17% CV). The bioavailability of the capsule relative to an IV dose or an oral solution has not been studied.
Following a single 1-gram oral dose, mean peak plasma levels ranging from 10 to 20 mcg/mL have been reported. Peak plasma levels are attained in 2 to 4 hours and the elimination half-life approximates 2 hours. Following multiple doses, plasma levels are proportional to dose with no evidence of drug accumulation. In a multiple dose trial of normal adult subjects (n= 6) receiving 1-gram doses of mefenamic acid four times daily, steady-state concentrations of 20 mcg/mL were reached on the second day of administration, consistent with the short half-life.
The effect of food on the rate and extent of absorption of mefenamic acid has not been studied. Concomitant ingestion of antacids containing magnesium hydroxide has been shown to significantly increase the rate and extent of mefenamic acid absorption (see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions).
Mefenamic acid has been reported as being greater than 90% bound to albumin. The relationship of unbound fraction to drug concentration has not been studied. The apparent volume of distribution (Vzss/F) estimated following a 500-mg oral dose of mefenamic acid was 1.06 L/kg.
Mefenamic acid is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 to 3-hydroxymethyl mefenamic acid (Metabolite I). Further oxidation to a 3-carboxymefenamic acid (Metabolite II) may occur. The activity of these metabolites has not been studied. The metabolites may undergo glucuronidation and mefenamic acid is also glucuronidated directly. A peak plasma level approximating 20 mcg/mL was observed at 3 hours for the hydroxy metabolite and its glucuronide (n= 6) after a single 1-gram dose. Similarly, a peak plasma level of 8 mcg/mL was observed at 6 to 8 hours for the carboxy metabolite and its glucuronide.
Approximately fifty-two percent of a mefenamic acid dose is excreted into the urine primarily as glucuronides of mefenamic acid (6%), 3-hydroxymefenamic acid (25%) and 3 carboxymefenamic acid (21%). The fecal route of elimination accounts for up to 20% of the dose, mainly in the form of unconjugated 3-carboxymefenamic acid.
The elimination half-life of mefenamic acid is approximately two hours. Half-lives of metabolites I and II have not been precisely reported, but appear to be longer than the parent compound. The metabolites may accumulate in patients with renal or hepatic failure. The mefenamic acid glucuronide may bind irreversibly to plasma proteins. Because both renal and hepatic excretions are significant pathways of elimination, dosage adjustments in patients with renal or hepatic dysfunction may be necessary. Mefenamic acid should not be administered to patients with pre-existing renal disease or in patients with significantly impaired renal function ( see WARNINGS; Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia) .
TABLE 1. Pharmacokinetic Parameter Estimates for Mefenamic Acid
|PK Parameters||Normal Healthy Adults (18 to 45 yr)|
|T max (hr)||2||66|
|Oral clearance (L/hr)||21.13||38|
|Apparent volume of distribution; Vz/F (L/kg)||1.06||60|
|Half-life; t ½ (hrs)||2 to 4||N/A|
Pediatric: Mefenamic acid has not been adequately investigated in pediatric patients less than 14 years of age. A study in 17 preterm infants administered 2 mg/kg indicated that the half-life was about five times as long as adults, consistent with the low activity of metabolic enzymes in newborn infants. The mean C max in this study was 4 mcg/mL (range 2.9 to 6.1). The mean time to maximum concentration (T max ) was 8 hours (range 2 to 18 hours).
Race: Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified.
Hepatic Impairment: Mefenamic acid pharmacokinetics have not been studied in patients with hepatic dysfunction. As hepatic metabolism is a significant pathway of mefenamic acid elimination, patients with acute and chronic hepatic disease may require reduced doses of mefenamic acid compared to patients with normal hepatic function (see WARNINGS; Hepatotoxicity).
Renal Impairment: Mefenamic acid pharmacokinetics have not been investigated in subjects with renal insufficiency. Given that mefenamic acid, its metabolites and conjugates are primarily excreted by the kidneys, the potential exists for mefenamic acid metabolites to accumulate. Mefenamic acid should not be administered to patients with pre-existing renal disease or in patients with significantly impaired renal function ( see WARNINGS; Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia).
Drug Interaction Studies
Aspirin: When NSAIDs were administered with aspirin, the protein binding of NSAIDs were reduced, although the clearance of free NSAID was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. See Table 2 for clinically significant drug interactions of NSAIDs with aspirin ( see PRECAUTIONS; Drug Interactions) .
In controlled, double-blind, clinical trials, mefenamic acid was evaluated for the treatment of primary spasmodic dysmenorrhea. The parameters used in determining efficacy included pain assessment by both patient and investigator; the need for concurrent analgesic medication; and evaluation of change in frequency and severity of symptoms characteristic of spasmodic dysmenorrhea. Patients received either mefenamic acid, 500 mg (2 capsules) as an initial dose of 250 mg every 6 hours, or placebo at onset of bleeding or of pain, whichever began first. After three menstrual cycles, patients were crossed over to the alternate treatment for an additional three cycles. Mefenamic acid was significantly superior to placebo in all parameters, and both treatments (drug and placebo) were equally tolerated.
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