MELOXICAM- meloxicam tablet
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA
WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Meloxicam tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Osteoarthritis (OA)
Meloxicam tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
1.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Meloxicam tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
1.3 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) Pauciarticular and Polyarticular Course
Meloxicam tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of pauciarticular or polyarticular course Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients who weigh ≥ 60 kg [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Studies (14.2)].
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 General Dosing Instructions
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of meloxicam and other treatment options before deciding to use meloxicam. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
After observing the response to initial therapy with meloxicam, adjust the dose to suit an individual patient’s needs.
In adults, the maximum recommended daily oral dose of meloxicam is 15 mg regardless of formulation. In patients with hemodialysis, a maximum daily dosage of 7.5 mg is recommended [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Meloxicam may be taken without regard to timing of meals.
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis the recommended starting and maintenance oral dose of meloxicam is 7.5 mg once daily. Some patients may receive additional benefit by increasing the dose to 15 mg once daily.
2.3 Rheumatoid Arthritis
For the relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, the recommended starting and maintenance oral dose of meloxicam is 7.5 mg once daily. Some patients may receive additional benefit by increasing the dose to 15 mg once daily.
2.4 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) Pauciarticular and Polyarticular Course
For the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, the recommended oral dose of meloxicam is 7.5 mg once daily in children who weigh ≥ 60 kg. There was no additional benefit demonstrated by increasing the dose above 7.5 mg in clinical trials.
Meloxicam tablets should not be used in children who weigh < 60 kg.
2.5 Renal Impairment
The use of meloxicam in subjects with severe renal impairment is not recommended.
In patients on hemodialysis, the maximum dosage of meloxicam is 7.5 mg per day [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Meloxicam Tablets, USP:
• 7.5 mg: light yellow, circular, biconvex uncoated tablets with “7.5” debossed on one side and “G14” on the other side.
• 15 mg: light yellow, oval, biconvex uncoated tablets with “15” debossed on one side and “G14” on the other side.
Meloxicam tablets are contraindicated in the following patients:
- Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to meloxicam or any components of the drug product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.9)]
- History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7, 5.8)]
- In the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID, such as meloxicam, increases the risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Status Post Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery
Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. NSAIDs are contraindicated in the setting of CABG [see Contraindications (4)].
Observational studies conducted in the Danish National Registry have demonstrated that patients treated with NSAIDs in the post-MI period were at increased risk of reinfarction, CV-related death, and all-cause mortality beginning in the first week of treatment. In this same cohort, the incidence of death in the first year post-MI was 20 per 100 person years in NSAID-treated patients compared to 12 per 100 person years in non-NSAID exposed patients. Although the absolute rate of death declined somewhat after the first year post-MI, the increased relative risk of death in NSAID users persisted over at least the next four years of follow-up.
Avoid the use of meloxicam in patients with a recent MI unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of recurrent CV thrombotic events. If meloxicam is used in patients with a recent MI, monitor patients for signs of cardiac ischemia.
5.2 Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including meloxicam, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occurred in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2 to 4% of patients treated for one year. However, even short-term NSAID therapy is not without risk.
Risk Factors for GI Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding who used NSAIDs had a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients without these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk of GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include longer duration of NSAID therapy; concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, aspirin, anticoagulants, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); smoking; use of alcohol; older age; and poor general health status. Most postmarketing reports of fatal GI events occurred in elderly or debilitated patients. Additionally, patients with advanced liver disease and/or coagulopathy are at increased risk for GI bleeding.
Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:
- Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
- Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
- Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
- Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
- If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue meloxicam until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
- In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7)].
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