Meloxicam (Page 4 of 8)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of meloxicam. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions about whether to include an adverse event from spontaneous reports in labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the event, (2) number of reports, or (3) strength of causal relationship to the drug. Adverse reactions reported in worldwide post marketing experience or the literature include: acute urinary retention; agranulocytosis; alterations in mood (such as mood elevation); anaphylactoid reactions including shock; erythema multiforme; exfoliative dermatitis; interstitial nephritis; jaundice; liver failure; Stevens-Johnson syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis, and infertility female.

7. DRUG INTERACTIONS

See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions with meloxicam. See also Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.6, 5.12) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).

Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis

Clinical Impact:

Meloxicam and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of meloxicam and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.

Intervention:

Monitor patients with concomitant use of meloxicam with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet agents (e.g., aspirin), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ].

Aspirin

Clinical Impact:

Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

Intervention:

Concomitant use of meloxicam and low dose aspirin or analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ]. Meloxicam is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.

ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, or Beta-Blockers

Clinical Impact:

NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of meloxicam and ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained.
During concomitant use of meloxicam and ACE inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.

Diuretics

Clinical Impact:

Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. However, studies with furosemide agents and meloxicam have not demonstrated a reduction in natriuretic effect. Furosemide single and multiple dose pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are not affected by multiple doses of meloxicam.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of meloxicam with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].

Lithium

Clinical Impact:

NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Intervention:

During concomitant use of meloxicam and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.

Methotrexate

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction).

Intervention:

During concomitant use of meloxicam and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.

Cyclosporine

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of meloxicam and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.

Intervention:

During concomitant use of meloxicam and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

NSAIDs and Salicylates

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of meloxicam with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

Intervention:

The concomitant use of meloxicam with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.

Pemetrexed

Clinical Impact:

Concomitant use of meloxicam and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).

Intervention:

During concomitant use of meloxicam and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. Patients taking meloxicam should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration. In patients with creatinine clearance below 45 mL/min, the concomitant administration of meloxicam with pemetrexed is not recommended.

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