Use of NSAIDs, including meloxicam, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including meloxicam, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester) [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10) ].
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of meloxicam in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss.
In animal reproduction studies, embryofetal death was observed in rats and rabbits treated during the period of organogenesis with meloxicam at oral doses equivalent to 0.65- and 6.5-times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of meloxicam. Increased incidence of septal heart defects were observed in rabbits treated throughout embryogenesis with meloxicam at an oral dose equivalent to 78-times the MRHD. In pre- and post-natal reproduction studies, there was an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased offspring survival at 0.08-times MRHD of meloxicam. No teratogenic effects were observed in rats and rabbits treated with meloxicam during organogenesis at an oral dose equivalent to 2.6 and 26-times the MRHD [see Data].
Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, such as meloxicam, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of meloxicam during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including meloxicam, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.
Meloxicam was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during fetal organogenesis at oral doses up to 4 mg/kg/day (2.6-fold greater than the MRHD of 15 mg of meloxicam based on BSA comparison). Administration of meloxicam to pregnant rabbits throughout embryogenesis produced an increased incidence of septal defects of the heart at an oral dose of 60 mg/kg/day (78-fold greater than the MRHD based on BSA comparison). The no effect level was 20 mg/kg/day (26-fold greater than the MRHD based on BSA conversion). In rats and rabbits, embryolethality occurred at oral meloxicam doses of 1 mg/kg/day and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively (0.65- and 6.5-fold greater, respectively, than the MRHD based on BSA comparison) when administered throughout organogenesis.
Oral administration of meloxicam to pregnant rats during late gestation through lactation increased the incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased offspring survival at meloxicam doses of 0.125 mg/kg/day or greater (0.08-times MRHD based on BSA comparison).
There are no human data available on whether meloxicam is present in human milk, or on the effects on breastfed infants, or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for meloxicam and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the meloxicam or from the underlying maternal condition.
Meloxicam was present in the milk of lactating rats at concentrations higher than those in plasma.
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including meloxicam, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including meloxicam, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.
The safety and effectiveness of meloxicam in pediatric JRA patients from 2 to 17 years of age has been evaluated in three clinical trials [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3), Adverse Reactions ( 6.1) and Clinical Studies ( 14.2) ].
Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.13) ].
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been adequately studied. Since meloxicam is significantly metabolized in the liver and hepatotoxicity may occur, use meloxicam with caution in patients with hepatic impairment [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Patients with severe renal impairment have not been studied. The use of meloxicam in subjects with severe renal impairment is not recommended. In patients on hemodialysis, meloxicam should not exceed 7.5 mg per day. Meloxicam is not dialyzable [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3) ].
Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6) ].
Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding
There is limited experience with meloxicam overdosage. Cholestyramine is known to accelerate the clearance of meloxicam. Accelerated removal of meloxicam by 4 g oral doses of cholestyramine given three times a day was demonstrated in a clinical trial. Administration of cholestyramine may be useful following an overdosage.
For additional information about overdosage treatment, call a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).
Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Each tablet contains 7.5 mg or 15 mg meloxicam, USP for oral administration. Meloxicam is chemically designated as 4-hydroxy-2-methyl- N -(5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2 H -1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide. The molecular weight is 351.4. Its empirical formula is C 14 H 13 N 3 O 4 S 2 and it has the following structural formula:
Meloxicam is a pale yellow solid, practically insoluble in water, with higher solubility observed in strong acids and bases. It is very slightly soluble in methanol. Meloxicam has an apparent partition coefficient (log P) app = 0.1 in n -octanol/buffer pH 7.4. Meloxicam has pKa values of 1.1 and 4.2.
Meloxicam is available as a tablet for oral administration containing 7.5 mg or 15 mg meloxicam, USP.
The inactive ingredients in meloxicam tablets, USP include starch, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose anhydrous, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium citrate dihydrate, magnesium stearate.
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