MERCAPTOPURINE- mercaptopurine tablet
Hikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.
Mercaptopurine Tablets are indicated for treatment of adult and pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as part of a combination chemotherapy maintenance regimen.
The recommended starting dosage of Mercaptopurine Tablets is 1.5 mg/kg to 2.5 mg/kg orally once daily as part of combination chemotherapy maintenance regimen. A recommended dosage for patients less than 17 kg is not achievable, because the only available strength is 50 mg. Take Mercaptopurine Tablets either consistently with or without food.
After initiating Mercaptopurine Tablets, monitor complete blood count (CBC) and adjust the dose to maintain absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at a desirable level and for excessive myelosuppression. Evaluate the bone marrow in patients with prolonged myelosuppression or repeated episodes of myelosuppression to assess leukemia status and marrow cellularity.
Evaluate thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and nucleotide diphosphatase (NUDT15) status in patients with severe myelosuppression or repeated episodes or myelosuppression [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Do not administer to patients who are unable to swallow tablets.
If a patient misses a dose, instruct the patient to continue with the next scheduled dose.
Mercaptopurine Tablets is a cytotoxic drug. Follow special handling and disposal procedures.
Consider testing for TPMT and NUDT15 deficiency in patients who experience severe myelosuppression or repeated episodes of myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
Homozygous Deficiency in either TPMT or NUDT15
Patients with homozygous deficiency of either enzyme typically require 10% or less of the recommended dosage. Reduce the recommended starting dosage of Mercaptopurine Tablets in patients who are known to have homozygous TPMT or NUDT15 deficiency.
Heterozygous Deficiency in TPMT and/or NUDT15
Reduce the Mercaptopurine Tablets dose based on tolerability. Most patients with heterozygous TPMT or NUDT15 deficiency tolerate the recommended dosage, but some require a dose reduction based on adverse reactions. Patients who are heterozygous for both TPMT and NUDT15 may require more substantial dose reductions.
Use the lowest recommended starting dosage for Mercaptopurine Tablets in patients with renal impairment (CLcr less than 50 mL/min). Adjust the dosage to maintain absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at a desirable level and for adverse reactions [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Use the lowest recommended starting dosage for Mercaptopurine Tablets in patients with hepatic impairment. Adjust the dosage to maintain absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at a desirable level and for adverse reactions [see Uses in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Reduce the dose of Mercaptopurine Tablets to one-third to one-quarter of the current dosage when coadministered with allopurinol [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Tablets: 50 mg mercaptopurine are pale yellow, biconvex tablets, with product identification “54 420” on one side and a score on the other side.
The most consistent, dose-related adverse reaction is myelosuppression, manifested by anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, or any combination of these. Monitor CBC and adjust the dosage of Mercaptopurine Tablets for excessive myelosuppression [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Consider testing for TPMT or NUDT15 deficiency in patients with severe myelosuppression or repeated episodes of myelosuppression. TPMT genotyping or phenotyping (red blood cell TPMT activity) and NUDT15 genotyping can identify patients who have reduced activity of these enzymes. Patients with heterozygous or homozygous TPMT or NUDT15 deficiency may require a dose reduction [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].
Myelosuppression can be exacerbated by coadministration with allopurinol, aminosalicylates or other products that cause myelosuppression [see Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.3, 7.4)]. Reduce the dose of Mercaptopurine Tablets when coadministered with allopurinol [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Mercaptopurine is hepatotoxic. There are reports of deaths attributed to hepatic necrosis associated with the administration of mercaptopurine. Hepatic injury can occur with any dosage but seems to occur with greater frequency when the recommended dosage is exceeded. In some patients, jaundice has cleared following withdrawal of mercaptopurine and reappeared with rechallenge.
Usually, clinically detectable jaundice appears early in the course of treatment (1 to 2 months); however, jaundice has been reported as early as 1 week and as late as 8 years after the starting mercaptopurine. The hepatotoxicity has been associated in some cases with anorexia, diarrhea, jaundice and ascites. Hepatic encephalopathy has occurred.
Monitor serum transaminase levels, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels at weekly intervals when first beginning therapy and at monthly intervals thereafter. Monitor liver tests more frequently in patients who are receiving Mercaptopurine Tablets with other hepatotoxic products [see Drug Interactions (7.5)] or with known pre-existing liver disease. Withhold Mercaptopurine Tablets at onset of hepatotoxicity.
Mercaptopurine is immunosuppressive and may impair the immune response to infectious agents or vaccines. Due to the immunosuppression associated with maintenance chemotherapy for ALL, response to all vaccines may be diminished and there is a risk of infection with live virus vaccines. Consult immunization guidelines for immunocompromised patients.
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma has been reported in patients treated with mercaptopurine for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an unapproved use. Mercaptopurine is mutagenic in animals and humans, carcinogenic in animals, and may increase the risk of secondary malignancies.
Patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, including mercaptopurine, are at an increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders and other malignancies, notably skin cancers (melanoma and non-melanoma), sarcomas (Kaposi’s and non-Kaposi’s) and uterine cervical cancer in situ. The increased risk appears to be related to the degree and duration of immunosuppression. It has been reported that discontinuation of immunosuppression may provide partial regression of the lymphoproliferative disorder.
A treatment regimen containing multiple immunosuppressants (including thiopurines) should therefore be used with caution as this could lead to lymphoproliferative disorders, some with reported fatalities. A combination of multiple immunosuppressants, given concomitantly increases the risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) (hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis) is a known, life-threatening disorder that may develop in patients with autoimmune conditions, in particular with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and there could potentially be an increased susceptibility for developing the condition with the use of mercaptopurine (an unapproved use). If MAS occurs, or is suspected, discontinue Mercaptopurine Tablets. Monitor for and promptly treat infections such as EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV), as these are known triggers for MAS.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.