The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of mesalamine extended-release capsules or other mesalamine-containing products. Because many of these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole: lupus-like syndrome, drug fever
Cardiovascular: pericarditis, pericardial effusion, myocarditis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Gastrointestinal: pancreatitis, cholecystitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforated peptic ulcer
Hepatic: jaundice, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, liver necrosis, liver failure, Kawasaki-like syndrome including changes in liver enzymes
Hematologic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia
Nervous System: intracranial hypertension
Neurological/Psychiatric: peripheral neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis
Renal and Urinary: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, interstitial nephritis, renal failure, minimal change disease, nephrolithiasis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.6)]
Respiratory/Pulmonary: eosinophilic pneumonia, interstitial pneumonitis
Skin: psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum
Renal/Urogenital: reversible oligospermia
Because the dissolution of the coating of the granules in mesalamine extended-release capsules depends on pH, avoid co-administration of mesalamine extended-release capsules with antacids [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
The concurrent use of mesalamine with known nephrotoxic agents, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. Monitor patients taking nephrotoxic drugs for changes in renal function and mesalamine-related adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
The concurrent use of mesalamine with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and/or other drugs known to cause myelotoxicity may increase the risk for blood disorders, bone marrow failure, and associated complications. If concomitant use of mesalamine extended-release capsules and azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine cannot be avoided, monitor blood tests, including complete blood cell counts and platelet counts.
Use of mesalamine extended-release capsules may lead to spuriously elevated test results when measuring urinary normetanephrine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Consider an alternative, selective assay for normetanephrine.
Published data from meta-analyses, cohort studies and case series on the use of mesalamine during pregnancy have not reliably informed an association with mesalamine and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data).
In animal reproduction studies, there were no adverse developmental outcomes with administration of oral mesalamine during organogenesis to pregnant rats and rabbits at doses 1.7 and 5.4 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. Adverse outcomes in pregnancy occur regardless of the health of the mother or the use of medications. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and embryo/fetal risk
Published data suggest that increased disease activity is associated with the risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include preterm delivery (before 37 weeks of gestation), low birth weight (less than 2500 g) infants, and small for gestational age at birth.
Published data from meta-analyses, cohort studies and case series on the use of mesalamine during early pregnancy (first trimester) and throughout pregnancy have not reliably informed an association of mesalamine and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There is no clear evidence that mesalamine exposure in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk in major congenital malformations, including cardiac malformations. Published epidemiologic studies have important methodological limitations which hinder interpretation of the data, including inability to control for confounders, such as underlying maternal disease, and maternal use of concomitant medications, and missing information on the dose and duration of use for mesalamine products.
Reproduction studies with mesalamine during organogenesis have been performed in rats at oral doses up to 320 mg/kg/day (about 1.7 times the recommended human dose based on a body surface area comparison) and rabbits at doses up to 495 mg/kg/day (about 5.4 times the recommended human dose based on a body surface area comparison) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to mesalamine.
Data from published literature report the presence of mesalamine and its metabolite, N-acetyl 5-aminosalicylic acid in human milk in small amounts with relative infant doses (RID) of 2% or less (see Data). There are case reports of diarrhea in breastfed infants exposed to mesalamine (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of the drug on milk production. The lack of clinical data during lactation precludes a clear determination of the risk of mesalamine extended-release capsules to an infant during lactation; therefore, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for mesalamine extended-release capsules and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from mesalamine extended-release capsules or from the underlying maternal condition.
Advise the caregiver to monitor the breastfed infant for diarrhea.
In published lactation studies, maternal mesalamine doses from various oral and rectal formulations and products ranged from 500 mg to 4.8 g daily. The average concentration of mesalamine in milk ranged from non-detectable to 0.5 mg/L. The average concentration of the N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in milk ranged from 0.2 to 9.3 mg/L. Based on these concentrations, estimated infant daily dosages for an exclusively breastfed infant are 0 to 0.075 mg/kg/day (RID 0 to 0.1%) of mesalamine and 0.03 to 1.4 mg/kg/day of N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid.
Safety and effectiveness of mesalamine extended-release capsules in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of mesalamine extended-release capsules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Reports from uncontrolled clinical studies and postmarketing reporting systems suggested a higher incidence of blood dyscrasias (i.e., agranulocytosis, neutropenia and pancytopenia) in patients who were 65 years or older compared to younger patients taking mesalamine-containing products such as mesalamine extended-release capsules. Monitor complete blood cell counts and platelet counts in elderly patients during treatment with mesalamine extended-release capsules. In general, consider the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients when prescribing mesalamine extended-release capsules [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
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