The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of mesalamine delayed-release tablets or other mesalamine-containing products. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Body as a Whole
Lupus-like syndrome, drug fever
Pericarditis, pericardial effusion, myocarditis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Cholecystitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforated peptic ulcer
Jaundice, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis, liver necrosis, liver failure, hepatotoxicity, Kawasaki-like syndrome including changes in liver enzymes
Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia
Immune System Disorders
Anaphylactic reaction, angioedema
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
Myalgia, lupus-like syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, intracranial hypertension
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders
Interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (including interstitial pneumonitis, allergic alveolitis, eosinophilic pneumonitis), pleurisy/pleuritis
Psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, photosensitivity, SJS/TEN, DRESS, and AGEP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
The concurrent use of mesalamine with known nephrotoxic agents, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. Monitor patients taking nephrotoxic drugs for changes in renal function and mesalamine-related adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
The concurrent use of mesalamine with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine and/or any other drugs known to cause myelotoxicity may increase the risk for blood disorders, bone marrow failure, and associated complications. If concomitant use of mesalamine and azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine cannot be avoided, monitor blood tests, including complete blood cell counts and platelet counts.
Use of mesalamine may lead to spuriously elevated test results when measuring urinary normetanephrine by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Consider an alternative, selective assay for normetanephrine.
Published data from meta-analyses, cohort studies, and case series on the use of mesalamine during pregnancy have not reliably informed an association with mesalamine and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data). There are adverse effects on maternal and fetal outcomes associated with ulcerative colitis in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
In animal reproduction studies, there were no adverse developmental outcomes with administration of oral mesalamine during organogenesis to pregnant rats and rabbits at doses 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the
U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriages in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and embryo/fetal risk
Published data suggest that increased disease activity is associated with the risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis. Adverse pregnancy outcomes include preterm delivery (before 37 weeks of gestation), low birth weight (less than 2500 g) infants, and small for gestational age at birth.
Published data from meta-analyses, cohort studies, and case series on the use of mesalamine during early pregnancy (first trimester) and throughout pregnancy have not reliably informed an association of mesalamine and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There is no clear evidence that mesalamine exposure in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations, including cardiac malformations. Published epidemiologic studies have important methodological limitations which hinder interpretation of the data, including inability to control for confounders, such as underlying maternal disease, maternal use of concomitant medications, and missing information on the dose and duration of use for mesalamine products.
Reproduction studies with mesalamine during organogenesis have been performed in rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (1.8 times the maximum recommended human dose based on a body surface area comparison) and rabbits at doses up to 800 mg/kg/day (2.9 times the maximum recommended human dose based on a body surface area comparison) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to mesalamine.
Data from published literature report the presence of mesalamine and its metabolite, N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in human milk in small amounts with relative infant doses (RID) of 0.1% or less for mesalamine (see Data). There are case reports of diarrhea in breastfed infants exposed to mesalamine (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of the drug on milk production. The lack of clinical data during lactation precludes a clear determination of the risk of mesalamine to an infant during lactation; therefore, the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for mesalamine and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from mesalamine or from the underlying maternal condition.
Advise the caregiver to monitor the breastfed infant for diarrhea.
In published lactation studies, maternal mesalamine doses from various oral and rectal formulations and products ranged from 500 mg to 4.8 g daily. The average concentration of mesalamine in milk ranged from non-detectable to 0.5 mg/L. The average concentration of N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in milk ranged from 0.2 to 9.3 mg/L. Based on these concentrations, estimated infant daily dosages for an exclusively breastfed infant are 0 to 0.075 mg/kg/day (RID 0% to 0.1%) of mesalamine and 0.03 to 1.4 mg/kg/day of N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid.
The safety and effectiveness of mesalamine delayed-release tablets have not been established in patients weighing less than 24 kg.
Pediatric use information is approved for Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.’s LIALDA (mesalamine) delayed-release tablets. However, due to Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.
Clinical trials of mesalamine did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Reports from uncontrolled clinical studies and postmarketing reporting systems suggested a higher incidence of blood dyscrasias (i.e., agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and pancytopenia) in patients who were 65 years or older who were taking mesalamine-containing products such as mesalamine compared to younger patients. Monitor complete blood cell counts and platelet counts in elderly patients during treatment with mesalamine.
Systemic exposures are increased in elderly subjects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In general, consider the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy in elderly patients when prescribing mesalamine. Consider starting at the low end of the dosing range for induction in elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2), Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
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