Mesalamine (Page 4 of 5)

13. NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

In a 104-week dietary carcinogenicity study in CD-1 mice, mesalamine at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day was not tumorigenic. This dose is 2.2 times the maximum recommended human dose (based on a body surface area comparison) of mesalamine delayed-release tablets. Furthermore, in a 104 week dietary carcinogenicity study in Wistar rats, mesalamine up to a dose of 800 mg/kg/day was not tumorigenic. This dose is 1.4 times the recommended human dose (based on a body surface area comparison) of mesalamine delayed-release tablets.

Mutagenesis

No evidence of mutagenicity was observed in an in vitro Ames test or an in vivo mouse micronucleus test.

Impairment of Fertility

No effects on fertility or reproductive performance were observed in male or female rats at oral doses of mesalamine up to 400 mg/kg/day (0.7 times the maximum recommended human dose based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

In animal studies with mesalamine, a 13-week oral toxicity study in mice and 13-week and 52-week oral toxicity studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys have shown the kidney to be the major target organ of mesalamine toxicity. Oral daily doses of 2400 mg/kg in mice and 1150 mg/kg in rats produced renal lesions including granular and hyaline casts, tubular degeneration, tubular dilation, renal infarct, papillary necrosis, tubular necrosis, and interstitial nephritis. In cynomolgus monkeys, oral daily doses of 250 mg/kg or higher produced nephrosis, papillary edema, and interstitial fibrosis.

14. CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Adults With Mildly to Moderately Active Ulcerative Colitis

Induction of Remission

Two similarly designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (Study 1, NCT00503243 and Study 2, NCT00548574) were conducted in 517 adult patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis. The study population was primarily Caucasian (80%), had a mean age of 42 years (6% age 65 years or older), and was approximately 50% male. Both studies used mesalamine delayed-release tablets dosages of 2.4 g and 4.8 g administered once daily for 8 weeks, except in Study 1 the 2.4 g dosage was administered as two divided doses (i.e., 1.2 g twice daily). The primary efficacy endpoint in both trials was to compare the percentage of patients in remission after 8 weeks of treatment for the mesalamine delayed-release tablets treatment groups versus placebo. Remission was defined as an Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UC-DAI) of ≤ 1, with scores of zero for rectal bleeding and for stool frequency, and a sigmoidoscopy score reduction of 1 point or more from baseline.

In both studies, the mesalamine delayed-release tablets dosages of 2.4 g and 4.8 g once daily demonstrated superiority over placebo in the primary efficacy endpoint (Table 6). Both mesalamine delayed-release tablets dosages also provided consistent benefit in secondary efficacy parameters, including clinical improvement, clinical remission, and sigmoidoscopic improvement. Both mesalamine delayed-release tablets dosages had similar efficacy profiles.

Table 6 Proportion of Adult Patients with Mildly to Moderately Active Ulcerative Colitis in Remission at Week 8 in Two Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Induction Trials

Dose

Study 1 (n=262) n/N (%)

Study 2 (n=255) n/N (%)

Mesalamine Delayed-Release Tablets 2.4 g/day

30/88 (34)

34/84 (41)

Mesalamine Delayed-Release Tablets 4.8 g/day

26/89 (29)

35/85 (41)

Placebo

11/85 (13)

19/86 (22)

Maintenance of Remission

A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active comparator study (Study 3, NCT00151892) was conducted in a total of 826 adult patients in remission from ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either mesalamine 2.4 g administered once daily or another mesalamine delayed-release product administered as 0.8 g twice daily. The study population had a mean age of 45 years (8% age 65 years or older), were 52% male, and were primarily Caucasian (64%).

Maintenance of remission was assessed using a modified UC-DAI. For this trial, maintenance of remission was based on maintaining endoscopic remission defined as a modified UC-DAI endoscopy subscore of ≤1. An endoscopy subscore of 0 represented normal mucosal appearance with intact vascular pattern and no friability or granulation. For this trial the endoscopy score definition of 1 (mild disease) was modified such that it could include erythema, decreased vascular pattern, and minimal granularity; however, it could not include friability.

The proportion of patients who maintained remission at Month 6 in this study using mesalamine delayed-release tablets 2.4 g once daily (84%) was similar to the comparator (82%).

Pediatric use information is approved for Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.’s LIALDA (mesalamine) delayed-release tablets. However, due to Takeda Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

16. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Mesalamine Delayed-Release Tablets USP, 1.2 g are pale red-brown, oval-shaped, biconvex, bevel film-coated tablets debossed with the ‘711’ on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows:

Cartons of 30 tablets (10 tablets per blister pack x 3), NDC 0904-6832-04

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.

17. PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Renal Impairment

Inform patients that mesalamine may decrease their renal function, especially if they have known renal impairment or are taking nephrotoxic drugs, and periodic monitoring of renal function will be performed while they are on therapy. Advise patients to complete all blood tests ordered by their healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

Mesalamine-Induced Acute Intolerance Syndrome and Other Hypersensitivity Reactions

Instruct patients to stop taking mesalamine and report to their healthcare provider if they experience new or worsening symptoms of acute intolerance syndrome (cramping, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, fever, headache, and rash) or other symptoms suggestive of mesalamine-induced hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3)].

Hepatic Impairment

Advise patients with known liver disease to contact their healthcare provider if they experience signs or symptoms of worsening liver function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

Inform patients of the signs and symptoms of severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Instruct patients to stop taking mesalamine delayed-release tablets and report to their healthcare provider at first appearance of a severe cutaneous adverse reaction or other sign of hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Obstruction

Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider if they experience signs and symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

Photosensitivity

Advise patients with pre-existing skin conditions to avoid sun exposure, wear protective clothing, and use a broad-spectrum sunscreen when outdoors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Nephrolithiasis

Instruct patients to drink an adequate amount of fluids during treatment in order to minimize the risk of kidney stone formation and to contact their healthcare provider if they experience signs or symptoms of a kidney stone (e.g., severe side or back pain, blood in the urine) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Blood Disorders

Inform elderly patients and those taking azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine of the risk for blood disorders and the need for periodic monitoring of complete blood cell counts and platelet counts while on therapy. Advise patients to complete all blood tests ordered by their healthcare provider [see Drug Interactions (7.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

Administration

Instruct patients:

Swallow mesalamine delayed-release tablets whole; do not split or crush.
Take mesalamine delayed-release tablets with food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Drink an adequate amount of fluids [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

Manufactured by:

Cadila Healthcare Ltd.

Ahmedabad, India

Distributed by:

Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.

Pennington, NJ 08534

Distributed by:

MAJOR® PHARMACEUTICALS

Livonia, MI 48152 USA

Refer to package label for Distributor’s NDC Number

Rev.: 12/21

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