METAXALONE- metaxalone tablet
Misemer Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Metaxalone Tablets, USP are available as 400mg, 400mg tablets are round shaped, light pink tablets. Chemically, metaxalone, USP is 5-[(3,5-dimethylphenoxy)methyl]-2-oxazolidinone. The empirical formula is C 12 H 15 NO 3 , which corresponds to a molecular weight of 221.25. The structural formula is:
Metaxalone, USP is a white to almost white, crystalline powder freely soluble in dichloromethane, soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol and ethyl acetate, slightly soluble in toluene and isopropanol, insoluble in water and n -hexane.
Each tablet contains 400 mg metaxalone, USP and the following inactive ingredients: alginic acid, corn starch, ferric oxide red, copovidone, magnesium stearate, povidone, pregelatinized starch, sodium alginate.
Mechanism of Action:
The mechanism of action of metaxalone in humans has not been established, but may be due to general central nervous system (CNS) depression. Metaxalone has no direct action on the contractile mechanism of striated muscle, the motor end plate, or the nerve fiber.
The pharmacokinetics of metaxalone have been evaluated in healthy adult volunteers after single dose administration of metaxalone under fasted and fed conditions at doses ranging from 400 mg to 800 mg.
Absorption Peak plasma concentrations of metaxalone occur approximately 3 hours after a 400 mg oral dose under fasted conditions. Thereafter, metaxalone concentrations decline log-linearly with a terminal half-life of 9.0 ± 4.8 hours. Doubling the dose of metaxalone from 400 mg to 800 mg results in a roughly proportional increase in metaxalone exposure as indicated by peak plasma concentrations (C max ) and area under the curve (AUC). Dose proportionality at doses above 800 mg has not been studied. The absolute bioavailability of metaxalone is not known.
The single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters of metaxalone in two groups of healthy volunteers are shown in Table 1.
|Table 1: Mean (%CV) Metaxalone Pharmacokinetic Parameters|
C max (ng/mL)
T max (h)
AUC ∞ (ng •h/mL)
t 1/2 (h)
|400 1||983 (53)||3.3 (35)||7,479 (51)||9.0 (53)||68 (50)|
|800 2||1,816 (43)||3.0 (39)||15,044 (46)||8.0 (58)||66 (51)|
1 Subjects received 1×400 mg tablet under fasted conditions (N=42) 2 Subjects received 2×400 mg tablets under fasted conditions (N=59)
Food Effects A randomized, two-way, crossover study was conducted in 42 healthy volunteers (31 males, 11 females) administered one 400 mg metaxalone tablet under fasted conditions and following a standard high-fat breakfast. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 48 years (mean age = 23.5 ± 5.7 years). Compared to fasted conditions, the presence of a high fat meal at the time of drug administration increased C max by 177.5% and increased AUC (AUC 0-t, AUC ∞ ) by 123.5% and 115.4%, respectively. Time-to-peak concentration (T max ) was also delayed (4.3 h versus 3.3 h) and terminal half-life was decreased (2.4 h versus 9.0 h) under fed conditions compared to fasted.
In a second food effect study of similar design, two 400 mg metaxalone tablets (800 mg) were administered to healthy volunteers (N=59, 37 males, 22 females), ranging in age from 18 to 50 years (mean age = 25.6± 8.7 years). Compared to fasted conditions, the presence of a high fat meal at the time of drug administration increased C max by 193.6% and increased AUC (AUC 0-t, AUC ∞ ) by 146.4% and 142.2%, respectively. Time-to-peak concentration (T max ) was also delayed (4.9 h versus 3.0 h) and terminal half-life was decreased (4.2 h versus 8.0 h) under fed conditions compared to fasted conditions. Similar food effect results were observed in the above study when one metaxalone 800 mg tablet was administered in place of two metaxalone 400 mg tablets. The increase in metaxalone exposure coinciding with a reduction in half-life may be attributed to more complete absorption of metaxalone in the presence of a high fat meal (Figure 1).
Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
Although plasma protein binding and absolute bioavailability of metaxalone are not known, the apparent volume of distribution (V/F ~ 800 L) and lipophilicity (log P = 2.42) of metaxalone suggest that the drug is extensively distributed in the tissues. Metaxalone is metabolized by the liver and excreted in the urine as unidentified metabolites. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a role in the metabolism of metaxalone. Specifically, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 and, to a lesser extent, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 appear to metabolize metaxalone.
Metaxalone does not significantly inhibit major CYP enzymes such as CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. Metaxalone does not significantly induce major CYP enzymes such as CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in vitro.
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