Metformin Hydrochloride (Page 2 of 7)

5.2 Vitamin B 12 Deficiency

In clinical trials of 29-week duration with metformin HCl tablets, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B 12 levels was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B 12 absorption from the B 12 -intrinsic factor complex, may be associated with anemia but appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B 12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B 12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B 12 levels. Measure hematologic parameters on an annual basis and vitamin B 12 at 2 to 3 year intervals in patients on metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and manage any abnormalities [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.3 Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use with Insulin and Insulin Secretagogues

Insulin and insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylurea) are known to cause hypoglycemia. Metformin hydrochloride may increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin and/or an insulin secretagogue. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Drug Interactions (7)] .

5.4 Macrovascular Outcomes

There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical trials conducted in the U.S., over 1,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have been treated with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets 1,500 to 2,000 mg/day in active-controlled and placebo-controlled studies with the 500 mg dosage form. In the add-on to sulfonylurea study, patients receiving background glyburide therapy were randomized to receive add-on treatment of either one of three different regimens of metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets or placebo. In total, 431 patients received metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and glyburide and 144 patients received placebo and glyburide. Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of patients treated with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets that were more common in the combined metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and glyburide group than in the placebo and glyburide group are shown in Table 1. In 0.7% of patients treated with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets and glyburide, diarrhea was responsible for discontinuation of study medication compared to no patients in the placebo and glyburide group.

Table 1: Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% * of Patients for the Combined Metformin Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Groups Versus Placebo Group
*
Adverse reactions that were more common in the metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets-treated than in the placebo-treated patients.
Adverse Reaction Metformin Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets + Glyburide (n=431) Placebo + Glyburide (n=144)
Hypoglycemia 14% 5%
Diarrhea 13% 6%
Nausea 7% 4%

Laboratory Tests
Vitamin B 12 Concentrations In clinical trials of 29-week duration with metformin HCl tablets, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B 12 levels was observed in approximately 7% of patients.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury have been reported with postmarketing use of metformin.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Table 2 presents clinically significant drug interactions with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets.

Table 2: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Metformin Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Clinical Impact: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets may increase the risk for lactic acidosis.
Intervention: Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients.
Examples: Topiramate, zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide.
Drugs that Reduce Metformin Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Clearance
Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Intervention: Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use with metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets.
Examples: Ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine.
Alcohol
Clinical Impact: Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism.
Intervention: Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets.
Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin
Clinical Impact: Coadministration of metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia.
Intervention: Patients receiving an insulin secretagogue or insulin may require lower doses of the insulin secretagogue or insulin.
Drugs Affecting Glycemic Control
Clinical Impact: Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control.
Intervention: When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, observe the patient closely for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving metformin hydrochloride extended-release tablets, observe the patient closely for hypoglycemia.
Examples: Thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blockers, and isoniazid

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