Methylphenidate Hydrochloride (Page 3 of 6)
Limited published literature, based on milk sampling from seven mothers reports that methylphenidate is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses of 0.16% to 0.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.1 and 2.7. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from stimulant exposure are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.
Monitor breastfeeding infants for adverse reactions, such as agitation, insomnia, anorexia, and reduced weight gain.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets for the treatment of ADHD have been established in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years.
The safety and effectiveness of Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in pediatric patients less than 6 years have not been established.
The long-term efficacy of Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in pediatric patients has not been established.
Long-Term Suppression of Growth
Growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Pediatric patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Rats treated with methylphenidate early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in adulthood. A deficit in acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females only. The doses at which these findings were observed are at least 4 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m2 basis.
In a study conducted in young rats, methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks, starting early in the postnatal period (postnatal Day 7) and continuing through sexual maturity (postnatal Week 10). When these animals were tested as adults (postnatal Weeks 13 to 14), decreased spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in males and females previously treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m2 basis) or greater, and a deficit in the acquisition of a specific learning task was seen in females exposed to the highest dose (8 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis). The no effect level for juvenile neurobehavioral development in rats was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis). The clinical significance of the long-term behavioral effects observed in rats is unknown.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets has not been studied in the geriatric population.
9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
9.1 Controlled Substance
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets contain methylphenidate hydrochloride, a Schedule II controlled substance.
CNS stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, have a high potential for abuse. Abuse is characterized by impaired control over drug use despite harm, and craving.
Signs and symptoms of CNS stimulant abuse include increased heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and/or sweating, dilated pupils, hyperactivity, restlessness, insomnia, decreased appetite, loss of coordination, tremors, flushed skin, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain. Anxiety, psychosis, hostility, aggression, and suicidal or homicidal ideation have also been observed. Abusers of CNS stimulants may chew, snort, inject, or use other unapproved routes of administration which may result in overdose and death [see Overdosage (10)].
To reduce the abuse of CNS stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing. After prescribing, keep careful prescription records, educate patients and their families about abuse and on proper storage and disposal of CNS stimulants [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)] , monitor for signs of abuse while on therapy, and reevaluate the need for Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets use.
Tolerance (a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug results in a reduction of the drug’s desired and/or undesired effects over time) can occur during chronic therapy with CNS stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
Physical dependence (which is manifested by a withdrawal syndrome produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, or administration of an antagonist) may occur in patients treated with CNS stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Withdrawal symptoms after abrupt cessation following prolonged high-dosage administration of CNS stimulants include dysphoric mood; fatigue; vivid, unpleasant dreams; insomnia or hypersomnia; increased appetite; and psychomotor retardation or agitation.
Signs and symptoms of acute overdosage, resulting principally from overstimulation of the central nervous system and from excessive sympathomimetic effects, may include the following: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness, anxiety, agitation, tremors, hyperreflexia, muscle twitching, convulsions (which may be followed by coma), euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, sweating, flushing, headache, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, hypotension, tachypnea, mydriasis, dryness of mucous membranes, and rhabdomyolysis.
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) for the latest recommendations.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets contains methylphenidate hydrochloride, a CNS stimulant. It is available as tablets of 5mg, 10 mg and 20 mg strength for oral administration. Methylphenidate hydrochloride is methyl α-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate hydrochloride, and its structural formula is:
Methylphenidate hydrochloride USP is a white, odorless, fine crystalline powder. Its solutions are acid to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and in methanol, soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform and in acetone. Its molecular weight is 269.77 g/mol.
Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, D&C Yellow # 10, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, talc, and FD&C Blue #1 (10mg tablets).
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a CNS stimulant. The mode of therapeutic action in ADHD and narcolepsy is not known.
Methylphenidate is a racemic mixture comprised of the d- and l-threo enantiomers. The d-threo enantiomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-threo enantiomer. Methylphenidate blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.
A formal QT study has not been conducted in patients taking Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.
The effect of dexmethylphenidate, the pharmacologically active d-enantiomer of Methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, on the QT interval was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo- and open-label active (moxifloxacin)-controlled study following single doses of dexmethylphenidate XR 40 mg (maximum recommended adult total daily dosage) in 75 healthy volunteers. Electrocardiograms were collected up to 12 hours postdose. Frederica’s method for heart rate correction was employed to derive the corrected QT interval (QTcF). The maximum mean prolongation of QTcF intervals was less than 5 ms, and the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval was below 10 ms for all time-matched comparisons versus placebo. This was below the threshold of clinical concern and there was no evident exposure response relationship.
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