Methylphenidate Hydrochloride

METHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE — methylphenidate hydrochloride solution
Eywa Pharma Inc

WARNING: ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

CNS stimulants, including Methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2, 9.3)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution is indicated for the treatment of:
• Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older
• Narcolepsy

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Pretreatment Screening

Prior to initiating treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution, assess for the presence of cardiac disease (i.e., perform a careful history including family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, and physical examination) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy. Maintain careful prescription records, educate patients about abuse, monitor for signs of abuse and overdose, and periodically re-evaluate the need for methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution use [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].

2.2 General Dosing Information

Pediatric Patients 6 years of Age and Older
The recommended starting dosage is 5 mg orally twice daily before breakfast and lunch (preferably 30 to 45 minutes before meals). Increase the dosage gradually, in increments of 5 mg to 10 mg weekly. Daily dosage above 60 mg is not recommended.

Adults
Administer orally in divided doses 2 or 3 times daily, preferably 30 to 45 minutes before meals. The maximum recommended daily dose is 60 mg. The average dosage is 20 to 30 mg daily. For adult patients who are unable to sleep if medication is taken late in the day, administer the last dose before 6 p.m.

Pharmacological treatment of ADHD may be needed for extended periods. Periodically re-evaluate the long-term use of methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution, and adjust the dosage as needed.

2.3 Dosage Reduction and Discontinuation

If paradoxical aggravation of symptoms or other adverse reactions occur, reduce dosage, or, if necessary, discontinue methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution. Methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution should be periodically discontinued to assess the pediatric patient’s condition. If improvement is not observed after appropriate dosage adjustment over a one- month period, discontinue methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Methylphenidate hydrochloride USP is a clear, colorless to pale yellow, grape flavored solution available in a 500 mL bottle in the following strengths:

• 5 mg per 5 mL
• 10 mg per 5 mL

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution is contraindicated in patients:
• with known hypersensitivity to methylphenidate or other components of methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution. Hypersensitivity reactions such as angioedema and anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients treated with methylphenidate [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
• receiving concomitant treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or within 14 days following discontinuation of treatment with an MAOI, because of the risk of hypertensive crises [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Potential for Abuse and Dependence

CNS stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution, other methylphenidate-containing products, and amphetamines, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy [see Boxed Warning, Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2, 9.3)].

5.2 Serious Cardiovascular Reactions

Sudden death, stroke and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults with CNS stimulant treatment at recommended doses. Sudden death has been reported in pediatric patients with structural cardiac abnormalities and other serious heart problems taking CNS stimulants at recommended doses for ADHD. Avoid use in patients with known structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, and other serious heart problems. Further evaluate patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or arrhythmias during methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution treatment.

5.3 Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases

CNS stimulants cause an increase in blood pressure (mean increase approximately 2 to 4 mmHg) and heart rate (mean increase approximately 3 to 6 bpm). Individuals may have larger increases. Monitor all patients for hypertension and tachycardia.

5.4 Psychiatric Adverse Reactions

Exacerbation of Pre-Existing Psychosis

CNS stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic disorder.

Induction of a Manic Episode in Patients with Bipolar Illness
CNS stimulants may induce a manic or mixed mood episode in patients. Prior to initiating treatment, screen patients for risk factors for developing a manic episode (e.g., comorbid or history of depressive symptoms or a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, or depression).

New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms
CNS stimulants, at recommended doses, may cause psychotic or manic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania) in patients without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania. If such symptoms occur, consider discontinuing methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution. In a pooled analysis of multiple short- term, placebo-controlled studies of CNS stimulants, psychotic or manic symptoms occurred in approximately 0.1% of CNS stimulant-treated patients, compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.

5.5 Priapism

Prolonged and painful erections, sometimes requiring surgical intervention, have been reported with methylphenidate products in both pediatric and adult patients. Priapism was not reported with drug initiation but developed after some time on the drug, often subsequent to an increase in dose. Priapism has also appeared during a period of drug withdrawal (drug holidays or during discontinuation). Patients who develop abnormally sustained or frequent and painful erections should seek immediate medical attention.

5.6 Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Stimulants used to treat ADHD, including methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution, are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in postmarketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.

5.7 Long-Term Suppression of Growth

CNS stimulants have been associated with weight loss and slowing of growth rate in pediatric patients.

Careful follow-up of weight and height in children ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.

Closely monitor growth (weight and height) in pediatric patients treated with stimulants, including methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution. Patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted. The safety and effectiveness of methylphenidate hydrochloride oral solution have not been established in pediatric patient less than 6 years of age.

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